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Organic Chem, Ch. 13

Organic Chem, Vocabulary Words,Chapter 13, Mandy

Organic Chem, Chapter 13Organic Chem, Chapter 13
Unsaturated A molecule that contains a carbon-carbon multiple bond, to which more hydrogen atoms can be added.
Saturated A molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.
Alkene A hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond.
Alkyne A hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon triple bond.
Cycloalkene A cyclic hydrocarbon that contains a double bond.
Cis-trans isomers Alkenes that have the same connections between atoms but differ in their three-dimensional structures because of the way that groups are attached to different sides of the double bond.
Addition reaction A general reaction type in which a substance X-Y adds to the multiple bond of an unsaturated reactant to yield a saturated product that has only single bonds.
Elimination reaction A general reaction type in which a saturated reactant yields an unsaturated product by losing groups from two adjacent carbons.
Substitution reaction A general reaction type in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
Rearrangement reaction A general reaction type in which a molecule undergoes bond reorganization to yield an isomer.
Hydrogenation The addition of H2 to a multiple bond to give a saturated product.
Halogenation (alkene) The addition of Cl2 to Br2 to a multiple bond to give a dihalide product.
Hydrohalogenation The addition of HCl or HBr to a multiple bond to give an alkyl halide product.
Hydration The addition of water to a multiple bond to give an alcohol product.
Reaction mechanism A description of the individual steps by which old bonds are broken and new bonds formed are in a reaction.
Polymer A large molecule formed by the repetitive bonding together of many smaller molecules.
Monomer A small molecule that is used to prepare a polymer.
Aromatic The class of compounds containing benzene-like rings.
Resonance The phenomenon where the true structure of a molecule is an average among two or more conventional structures.
Nitration The substitution of a nitro group (-NO2) for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring.
Halogenation (aromatic) The substitution of a halogen group(-X) for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring.
Sulfonation The substitution of a sulfonic acid group (-SO3H) for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring.
Phenyl The C6H5-group.
Markovnikov's rule In the addition of HX to an alkene, the H becomes attached to the carbon that already has the most H's, and the X becomes attached to the carbon that has fewer H's.
Created by: MandyR on 2005-12-31



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