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MT - Ch. 11

Essentials of Medical Terminology - Ch. 11

endocrine system consists several glands hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal, & pancreas
2 categories of endocrine gland central & peripheral
central endocrine glands include hypothalamus & pituitary
central endocrine glands coordinate to regulate body functions (water & salt balance, growth, reproduction, & metabolism)
peripheral endocrine glands include thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal, & pancreas
thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, & pineal prdouction of hormones
pancreas not only produce hormones but is important to digestive system functions
endocrine function don't have ducts...hormones are secreated into the bloodstream to be received by target organs
exocrine function involves secretion of fluids into ducts for delivery to a site
hypothalamus secretes trophic hormones which have effect on pituitary activity
infundibular pea-sized pituitary gland hangs from the hypothalamus by a stalk
pituitary gland divided 2 lobes (anterior & posterior lobes)
anterior lobes secretes 7 hormones (5 are stimulating & 2 don't)
5 hormones stimulating are adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), Growth (GH), Thyroid-stimulating (TSH), follicle-stimulating (FSH), & luteinizing hormone (LH)
ACTH-adrenocorticotrophic stimulate adrenal cortex to produce & secrete cortisol & aldosterone
GH-growth (somatotrophin) stimulate growth in all body cells & release of the hormone somatomedin
TSH-thyroid-stimulating (thyrotrophin) stimulate thyroid gland to produce & secrete own hormone (thyroxne-T4 & triiodothyronine T3)
FSH-follicle-stimulating (gonadotrophin) stimulates development of gonads (ovaries & testes)
LH-luteinizing trigger ovulation (females) but regulate testosterone secretion (males)-ICSH-interstitial cell stimulating hormone
2 hormones not stimulating prolactin (PRL) & melanocyte-stimulating (MSH)
PRL-prolactin (not trophic) stimulates breast development & milk production
MSH-melanocyte-stimulating (not trophic) stimulates melanocytic activity in the skin
posterior lobe store & secrete 2 hormones antidiuretic (ADH-vasopressin) & oxytocin
ADH-antidiuretic prevents excessive loss of water
oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to assist child-birth & also regulates flow of milk from mammary glands
thyroid gland is in throat area produce T3 &T4; which regulate metabolic rate & increase energy production
thyroid gland also secretes calcitonin (regulates blood calcium levels)
parathyroid glands (4 egg-shaped glands) secrete PTH which regulate calcium & phosphorus level
adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys
adrenal cortex (3 groups) produce mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, & sex hormones
mineralocorticoids (inc. aldosterone) regulates sodium & potassium levels
glucocorticoid (inc. cortisol-hydrocortisone) antibody production; response to stress; metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, & proteins
sex hormones (estrogen & testosterone) development of secondary female & male characteristic
adrenal medulla (2 group) produce catecholamines-adrenaline (epinephrine) & nonadrenaline (norepinephrine)
catecgikanubes help body respond to stress
pineal gland locate deep in brain & secrete melatonin involved with the activity of the reproductive system
pancreas lies (has endocine & exocrine function) behind stomach & secretes pancreatic juice
pancreas endocrine function produce insulin & glucagon
pancreas exocrine function secrete pancreatic juice which travel along the pancreatic duct into the duodenum
insulin converts glucose into its storage form, glycogen, & stimulates the absorption of sugar by body cells
glucagon reconverts the glycogen into glucose when the body needs sugar
immun/o safe
radi/o radioactive
-genesis production
-gen producing
eu- normal
acr/o extremity; top
-megaly enlargement
acromegaly enlargement of many skeletal structures including the extremities, nose, forehead, & jaw
aden/o gland
adenoma benign tumor of a gland
adrenal/o;adren/o adrenal
-ectomy excision; surgical removal
adrenalectomy excision of the adrenal gland
andr/o male; man
-gen producing
androgen substance producing male characteristics such as the hormone testosterone
calc/o calcium
-emia blood condition
hypercalcemia excessive amt of calcium in the blood
crin/o to secrete
endocrinologist specialist in endocrinology
endocrinology study of the diagnosis & treatment of endocrine disorders
estr/o female
estrogen female sex hormones
gluc/o sugar
-genesis production
glucogenesis production of sugar
gluconeogenesis production of sugar from fats & proteins
glyc/o sugar
-lysis breakdown;separation;destruction
glycolysis breakdown of sugars
hyperglycemia excessive amt of sugar in the blood
hypoglycemia deficient amt of sugar in the blood
glycogen/o glycogen (storage from of sugar)
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen to form glucose
gonad/o gonads; sex glands (testes & ovaries)
-ism condition;process;state of
hypergonadism condition characterized by excessive secretion of gonadal hormones resulting in early sexual developement
gynec/o woman
-ia condition
mast/o breast
gynecomastia abnormal enlargement of the woman breast
home/o same
-stasis standing;stable;stopping;controlling
homeostasis a balanced, yet sometimes varying state
insulin/o insulin
hypoinsulinism condition characterized by decreased amt of insulin secretion resulting in hyperglycemia
kal/o potassium
hyperkalemia excessive amt of potassium in the blood
natr/o sodium
hyponatremia deficient amt of sodium in the blood
pancreat/o pancreas
-genic produced by
pancreatogenic proudced by the pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism condition characterized by excessive secretion of parathormone resulting in loss of calcium from the bone
pituitar/o pituitary gland
pan- all
panhypopituitarism condition characterized by a deficiency of all pituitary hormones resulting indwarfism & deterioration of secondary sex characteristic
thyr/o thyroid/o thyroid glands;shield
-oid resembling
eu- normal; good
euthyroid normal thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism condtion characterized by excessive secretion of the thyroid hormones result in goiter & exophthalmos
goiter enlarged thyroid gland
exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of the eyes
thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyrotomy to cut into the thyroid gland
ure/o urea (end product of protein breakdown, found in urine)
dia- through
anti- against
antidiuretic hormone hormone that prevents the loss of excessive amt of urine
-assay analysis of a mixture to identify its contens
radi/o radioactive
immun/o safe
radioimmunoassay blood test used to identify hormone levels in blood plasma (hormones are labeled w/radioactive substance)
endocrine hormones hormones secreted by the endocrine glands into the bloodstream
exocrine glands glands that secrete chemicals into ducts
-dipsia thirst
polydipsia excessive thirst
-physis to grow
adenohypophysis another name for anterior pituitary gland (made up of glandular tissue)
neurohypophysis another name for posterior pituitary gland (made up of neural tissue)
-trophic; -tropic pertaining to nourishment
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) pituitary hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce & secrete its own hormones
cortic/o cortex; outer layer
gonadotrophic pituitary hormone that stimulate the gonads to produce & secrete their own hormones
somat/o body
somatotrophic pituitary hormone that stimulates growth of body tissue
oxy- sharp; quick
-tocin labor
oxytocin pituitary hormone that quickens childbirth
OT oxytocin
PRL prolactin
RIA radioimmunoassay
TFT thyroid function tests
TRH thyrotrophin-releasing hormone
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
Created by: ltravis