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MT - Ch. 10

Essentials of Medical Terminology - Ch. 10

eyes & ears part of the nervous system
eye consists inner eye (eyeball) & outer eye (facial structure & eye muscles surrounding the eye)
inner eye (eyeball)consists outer, middle, & inner layers
outer layers consists cornea & sclera
cornea transparent anterior portion, allows light into the eye & participates in the focusing of light onto the back of the eye
sclera white of the eye (tough protective covering for most of the eyeball)
middle layer consists uvea
uvea (YOU-vee-ah) consists choroid, ciliary body, & iris
choroid (KOH-roid) inner lining of the sclera & contains blood vessels to nourish the eye
ciliary body (SIL-ee-ahr-e) lies at the anterior edges of choroid body & consists of ciliary muscles & ciliary process
ciliary muscles adjust the shape of the lens for focusing
ciliary process produces a watery substance (aqueous humor -- bathes the anterior region of the eye)
iris circular, colored portion of the eye
pupil (central opening in the iris) regulates the amt of light that enters the eye
inner layer consists retina
retina contain cones & rods (which are the cells that transform light into nerve impulses)
cones responsible for central & bright light vision
rods responsible for peripheral & low-light vision
optic disc/blind spots has no rods or cones & doesn't produce a visual images
lens is not considered to be part of one of the layers of the eye
suspensory ligaments where lens is located (posterior to the iris) & is held in place by ligaments
refraction when light passes thru the lens, it bent...bending is called
lens accommodation lens-shape changing
cataracts common age-related eye condition
lens have two cavities anterior & posterior cavities
anterior cavity contains aqueous humor (produced by ciliary processes)
posterior cavity contains vitreous humor (clear, jelly-like material)
vitreous humor maintains the spherical shape of the eyeball, holds retina firmly against the choroid and transmits light
glaucoma inability to drain aqueous humor causes increased intraocular pressure
outer eye consists orbital cavity, extrinsic ocular muscles, eyelids, conjunctival membrane, & lacrimal apparatus
orbital cavity bony depression into which eyeball fits, providing protection
extrinsic ocular muscles have 6 attached to the sclera of each eye (which move eye in any direction)
rectus straight
oblique slanted
six extrinsic ocular are superior, inferior, medial, & lateral retus; superior, & inferior oblique
eyelids shield eye from the light, dust, & trauma
conjunctival membrane thin mucous membrane lining the eyelids & anterior part of the eye exposed to the air, providing protection & lubrication
lacrimal apparatus produces, delivers, & drains tears from the eyes (cleaning & lubricating)
lacrimal glands produce tears
lacrimal ducts continuously delivered tears
punctae drain tears from eyes into a system of canals in the nose
lysozyme fight infectious microorganisms w/ antibacterial enzyme
ambly/o dull; dim
coagulati/o to condense; to clot
dipl/o double
emmertr/o in proper measure
is/o equal
-conus cone-shaped
-edema accumulation of fluid
-metrist specialist in the measurement of
-ory pertaining to
-schisis splitting; cleft
myoin- to shut
presby- old age
pseudo- false
aque/o water
-ous pertaining to
aqueous humor pertaining to a watery fluid found in the anterior cavity
blephar/o eyelid (most commonly used to indicate pathologic condition)
-pexy surgical fixation
blepharopexy surgical fixation of the eyelid
-plasty surgical reconstruction
blepharoplasty surgical reconstruction of the eyelid
sym- together; with
symblepharon adhesion of the eyeball to the eyelid
chori/o choroid
-itis inflammation
retin/o retina
chorioretinitis inflammation of the choroid & retina
choroido choroid; membrane
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
core/o pupil
-ia condition
an- no; not
is/o equal
anisocoria inequality in the size of the pupil
-meter instrument used to measure
coreometer instrument used to measure the pupil
corne/o cornea
-eal pertaining to
corneal pertaining to the cornea
cycl/o ciliary body
-plegia paralysis
cycloplegia pertaining to paralysis of the ciliary body
dacry/o tear; lacrimal duct
-stenosis narrowing
dacryostenosis narrowing of the lacrimal duct
goni/o angle (of the anterior chamber)
-scopy process of visual examination
gonioscopy process of visually examining the angle of the anterior chamber with the aid of gonioscope (tool for glaucoma)
irid/o; ir/o iris
iridocyclitis inflammation of the iris & ciliary body
iritis inflammation of the iris
-ectomy excision; surgical removal
iridectomy excision of the iris
kerat/o cornea
keratoconjunctivitis inflammation of the cornea & conjunctiva
keratoconus abnormal; cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea (disease causing blurred vision)
-osis abnormal condition
myc/o fungus
keratomycosis fungal infection of the cornea
keratoplasty surgical repair of the cornea; cornea transplant
lacrim/o tears
-al pertaining to
nas/o nose
nasolacrimal pertaining to the nose & lacrimal apparatus
mi/o contraction; less
-tic pertaining to
miosis abnormal contraction of the pupil
miotic a drug used to constrict the pupil
mydri/o wide; dilation; dilation; dilatation
-iasis condition; process
mydriasis dilation of the pupil
mydriatic pertaining to a drug used to dilate the pupil
ocul/o eye
extra- outside
extraocular pertaining to the outside of the eye
intra- within
intraocular pertaining to within the eye
ophthalm/o eye
ex- outward
-logist specialist
exophthalmia outward protrusion o fthe eyeball
ophthalmologist specialist in the study of the diagnosis & medical & surgical treatment of eye disorders
ophthalmology study of the eye including diseases & treatment
ophthalmoscopy process of visual examination of the eye (funduscopy or fundoscopy)
opt/o vision; sight
optic pertaining to vision or sight
-ician specialist; one who specializes; expert
optician expert who fills prescription for eyeglasses & contact lenses
-metrist specialist in the measurement of
optometrist specialist in the testing of visual function & in the diagnosis & nonsurgical treatment of eye condtion (don't have degree in medicine)
palpebr/o eyelid
palpebral pertaining to the eyelid
papill/o optic disc
-edema accumulation of fluid
papilledema accumulation of fluid in the optic disc
phac/o; phak/o lens
a- no; not; lack of
aphakia absence of lens
phacomalacia softening of the lens
pseudo false
pseudophakia condition characterized by replacement of the lens w/connective tissue
phot/o light
-ion process
coagulati/o to condense; to clot
cyclophotocoagulation destruction of a portion of the ciliary body using a laser
photocoagulation beam from a laser is aimed at the site of injury to condense the retinal tissue, thus repairing any retinal tears or detachment
-phobia fear
photophobia intolerance or sensativity to light
pupill/o pupil
-ary pertaining to
pupillary pertaining to the pupil
retin/o retina
retinal detachment separation of the retina from underlying tissue
-pathy disease
retinopathy any disease of the retina
retinopexy surgical fixation of the retina
-schisis splitting; cleft
retinoschisis splitting of the retina
scler/o sclera
sclerectomy excision of the sclera
ton/o tension
tonometry measurement of intraocular pressure (another test for glaucoma)
trabecul/o meshwork; lattice
trabeculoplasty surgical reconstruction of the trabecular meshwork of the canal Schlemn (used for treatment of glaucoma)
uve/o uvea (includes choroid, ciliary body, & iris)
uveitis inflammation of the uvea
vitre/o glasslike; gel-like
vitrectomy removal of soe or all of the vitreous humor & its replacement with clear fluid
humor body fluid
vitreous humor a gel-like, glassy substance in the posterior cavity
-chalasis relaxation
blepharochalasis relaxation of the eyelid
-opia; -opsia visual condition; vision
ambly/o dull; dim
amblyopia dimness of vision
dipl/o double
diplopia double vision
an- no; not; lack of
hemianopsia; hemianopia lack of vision in half the visual field
presby old age
presbyopia impaired vision due to advanced age
hyperopia light rays focus behind the retina; farsightedness
myein- to shut
myopia light ray are focused in front of the retina; nearsightedness
-tropia turning
emmetr/o in proper measure
emmetropia normal vision
eso- inward
esotropia turning inward of the eyeball
exo- outward
exotropia turning outward of the eyeball
hypertropia upward turning of the eyeball
hypotropia downward turning of the eyeball
-tropion turning
ec- out
ectropion outward turning of the eyelid
en- inward
entropion inward turning of the eyelid
accom accommodation
OD (oculus dextra) right eye
OS (oculus sinistra) left eye
OU (oculus unitas) both eyes
PERLA pupils equal; react to light & accommodation
PERRLA pupils equal, round, regular, react to light & accommodation
EOM extraocular movement
IOL intraocular lens
IOP intraocular pressure
VA visual acuity
VF visual field
ear consists external, middle, & inner ear
ear responsible for hearing & plays prominent role in maintaining balance
hearing process consists of detection & transduction
detection involves receiving the sound stimulus
transduction involves converting the detected sound into a nerve impulse (then sent on temporal lobe of brain for processing)
external ear composed auricle, external auditory meatus, & eardrum (tympanic membrane)
middle ear consists 3 ossicles; malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), & stapes (stirrup)
eustachian tube air pressure on ea side of the eardrum (which connects middle ear to the throat)
inner ear (labyrinth) consists bony & membranous labyrinth
bony labyrinth vestibule, semicircular canals, & cochlea
membranous labyrinth utricle, saccule, semicircular ducts, & cochlear ducts
bony labyrinth filled w/fluids perilymph
membranous labyrinth filled w/ fluids endolymph
2 types of deafness conductive & sensorineural
conductive deafness (can be treated by removing obstruction) caused by obstruction of the path traveled by sound waves from the external ear to inner ear
types of obstruction buildup of earwax or foreign body
sensorineural deafness results from damage to the auditory nerve or cochlea
audi/o hearing
-gram record
audiogram record of patient's hearing ability
-metry process of measuring
audiometry measurement of a patient's hearing ability
audit/o hearing
-ory pertaining to
auditory pertaining to hearing
aur/o ear
aural pertaining to the ear
cochle/o cochlea
-ear pertaining to
cochlear pertaining to the cochlea
-graphy process of recording
electrocochleography process of recording the electrical activity of the cochlea
labyrinth/o inner ear; labyrinth
labyrinthitis inflammation of the inner ear (often accompanied by vertigo (dizziness) & loss of balance)
myring/o tympanic membrane; eardrum
myringotomy process of cutting into eardrum to remove fluid from the middle ear
ossicul/o ossicles (malleus, incus, & stapes)
ossiculoplasty surgical reconstruction of the ossicles
ot/o ear
otalgia earache
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
media middle
serous otitis media inflammation results a buildup of watery fluid
purulent otitis media inflammation of a buildup of pus
otorrhea discharge from the ear
-rrhea discharge; flow
-sclerosis hardening
otosclerosis hardening of the ear
otoscope instrument used to visually examine the ear
salping/o eustachian tube
salpingoscope instrument used to visually examine the eustachian tube
staped/o stapes
stapedectomy removal of the stapes
tympan/o tympanic membrane; eardrum
tympanoplastry surgical reconstruction of the eardrum; myringoplasty
-cusis hearing
presbycusis diminished hearing due to old age
Created by: ltravis