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MedTerm Mod 17 *Ear*

Symp., Path. Cond., & Clinical Procedures

acoustic neuroma benign tumor that develops from tacoustic nerve & grows in auditory canal
tumor that initially causes tinnitus, vertigo & progressive hearing loss acoustic neuroma
treatment for acoustic neuroma can include resection by microsurgical techniques or abalated by radiosurgery
radiosurgery using powerful & precise x-ray beams insted of surgical incision
cholesteatoma collection of epithelial cells, sebum & cholesterol in a cyst within middle ear
cholesteatoma consists of cyst-like masses which produce a foul smelling odor
cholesteatoma is associated with perforations of tympanic membrane
deafness loss of the ability to hear
sensorineural hearing loss is also called nerve deafness
sensorineural hearing loss results from disease of, or trauma to, structures of inner ear or nerve pathways leading to brain
conductive deafness results from impairment of middle ear ossicles & membranes transmitting sound waves to cochlea
patients with sensorineural & conductive deafness can be helped by the use of hearing aids
earing aids contain microphone to pickup sounds, amplifier to increase volume, & speaker to transmit amplified sounds
Meniere disease disorder of vestibular labyrinth; endolymph accumulation in membranous labyrinth
cochlear hydrops increased endolymph pressure in cochlea
vestibular hydrops increased endolymph pressure in semicircular canals
tinnitus, sensitivity to loud sounds, progressive hearing loss, nausea, & vertigo are all signs/symptoms of Meniere disease
Meniere disease episodes/attacks can last minutes or hours
Meniere disease cause is unknown
Meniere disease treatments include tranquilizers, antihistamines, diuretics
surgery for Meniere disease may be necessary to surgery to lower endolymph pressure on cochlear hair cells
otitis media inflammation of middle ear
often follows an upper respiratory infection (URI) acute otitis media
signs/symptoms of otitis media include fever, pain, redness & loss of mobility of tympanic membrane
suppurative otitis media as the bacteria attach middle ear, pus formation occurs
treatment for otitis media is antibiotics
myringotomy may be required if otitis media becomes chronic, it will be necessary to ventilate middle ear
serous otitis media noninfectious inflammation with accumulation of serous fluid
results from dysfunctional/obstructed auditory tube serous otitis media
for patients who don't respond to medication for SOM & AOM a myringotomy to aspirate fluid & tympanostomy tubes placed into eardrum to venilate middle ear
myringotomy surgical incision of the tympanum to relieve pressure & buildup of fluid
tympanostomy tube tube inserted after myringotomy, provides ventilation & drainage for middle ear during healing, & is eventually extruded
otosclerosis excess formation of bony tissue in middle ear; particularly at labyrinth
hereditary condition resulting in bone forming around oval window & causing fixation/anklyosis of stapes bone otosclerosis
fixation condition of being held in a fixed position
ankylosis stiffness; immobility and consolidation of joint
otosclerosis will lead to the inability of stapes to transmit sound vibrations to inner ear, producing conductive hearing loss
effective treatment to restore hearing in patients with otosclerosis stapedectomy with replacement by prothesis
stapedectomy surgical removal of the stapes, which is then replaced with a prosthetic device
prosthetic device used after stapedectomy is made of stainless steel, Teflon, or a similar substance
in order to perform a stapedectomy oval window must be fenestrated
fenestrate to pierce with one or more openings
tinnitus sensation of noise in ears
noise sensations associated with tinnitus include ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming
caused by irritation of delicate hair cells in inner ear tinnitus
tinnitus symptoms may be associated with prebycusis, Meniere disease, otosclerosis, chronic otitis, labyrinthitis & other disorders
tinnitus may be persisten & severe, interfering with a patient's daily life
treatment for tinnitus includes biofeedback
biofeedback for tinnitus can help patient relax & exert control over stress & anxiety
tinnitus is a Latin-derived term meaning tinkling
vertigo sensation of irregular whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects; dizziness
can result from disease in labyrinth of inner ear or in nerve carrying message from semicircular canals to brain vertigo
with vertigo symptoms include affects to equilibrium, balance & possible nausea
audiometry process of testing hearing
audiometer electrical device instrument used to measure hearing
stimuli of specific frequencies delivered to determine hearing loss for each frequency audiometry
audiogram report of hearing using audiometer; in chart format
cochlear implant surgically implanted device allowing sensorineural hearing-impaired person to understand speech
electrical signals are sent directly into auditory nerve nerve by multiple electrodes inserted into cochlea cochlear implant
cochlear implants also contain an external microphone & speech processor to pick up signals converting into electrical impulses
ear thermometry meaurement of temperature of tympanic membrane by detection of infared radiation from eardrum
device inserted into auditory canal, results reflecting body temp provided within 2 second ear thermometry
otoscopy visual exam of ear with otoscope
otoscope instrument for inspecting the ear
tuning fork test test of ear condution using vibration source, tuning fork
tuning fork device that produces harmonic vibration when its two prongs are struck
Rinne test tuning fork test that compares duration of perception by bone & air conduction
examiner placed base of tuning fork against mastoid bone & in front of auditory meatus Rinne test
Weber test tuning fork is placed on midline of skull, assesses bone conduction of sound
tuning fork placed on center of forehead; if loudness of sound same in both ears hearing is normal Weber test
electronystagmography test of balance mechanism of inner ear by assessing eye movements
nystagmus rapidly twitching eye movement
electronystagmograph instrument used in electronystagmography
PE Tube polyethylene ventilating tube placed in eardrum
hyperacusis excessive sensitivity to sounds
macrotia abnormally large ears
mastoiditis inflammation & infection of mastoid process just behind ear
microtia abnormally small ears
myringitis inflammation of eardrum
ossiculoplasty surgical repair of an ossicle of middle ear
otolaryngologist specialist/surgeon in ear, nose & throat disorders
otomycosis fungal infection of the ear
otopyorrhea discharge of pur from ear
presbycusis progressive loss of hearing, occurring in middle/older age
tympanoplasty surgical repair of eardrum
usually thought of as a common childhood disease associated with colds, sore throats, and blockage of the eustachian tube AOM acute otitis media
this causes the middle ear to be prone to infection structure of eustachian tube and its connection to nasopharynx
characterized by a sense of fullness in the ear, diminished hearing, pain, and fever acute otitis media
types of fluids that can accumulate in middle ear serous, purulent, or mucoid
caused of improper fluid drainage include Obstruction or dysfunction of eustachian tube & enlarged lymphoid tissue in nasopharynx
Antibiotic therapy is used to treat acute and chronic otitis media
complication of chronic otitis media cholesteatoma
Surgical removal of the cholesteatoma is required to prevent damage to the structures of the middle ear
damages from cholesteatoma are related to the enzymes it produces
the bony tissue, from otosclerosis, attaches to & prevents movement of the stapes
Conductive hearing loss can be caused by accumulation of cerumen in auditory canal, presence of foreign body in ear, & diseases of middle ear
pneumatic attachment to the otoscope allows evaluation of the eardrum's mobility
hearing acuity capacity to perceive sound
device now available for use by those with profound hearing loss cochlear implant
cochlear implant bypasses the damaged cochlea
salpingoscope device used to examine eustachian tube
otodynia pain in the ear