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MedTerm Mod17 *Eye*

Terms, Abbreviations, & Meanings

AMD age-related macular degeneration
HEENT head, eyes, ears, nose, & throat
IOL intraocular lens
IOP intraocular pressure
LASIK laser in situ keratomileusis
OD right eyeLatin: oculus dexterDoctor of Optometry (optometrist)
OS left eyeLatin: oculus sinister
OU both eyesLatin: oculus uterque
PERRLA pupils equal, round, reactive to light & accommodation
POAG primary open-angle glaucoma
PRK photorefractive keratectomy
VA visual acuity
VF visual field
accomodation normal adjustment of eye to focus on objects from far to near
anisocoria inequality in size of pupils
anterior chamber space behind cornea & in front of lens & iris; contains aqueous humor
aphakia absence of lens of eye
aqueous humor fluid produced by ciliary body, helps to maintain shape of eyeball
chroid middle layer of eye, thin membrane with rich supply of blood vessels
ciliary body structure on each side of lens that connects choroid & iris
contains muscles that control shape of lens the ciliary body
cone photoreceptor cell in retina
responsible for color & central vision cone
conjuctiva delicate mucous membrane lining inner surface of eyelids & anterior part of eye
cornea fibrous transparent layer of clear tissue that extends over anterior portion of eyeball
corneascleral pertaining to cornea & sclera, white of the eye
fovea centralis small depression in middle of macula; area of clearest vision
hypertensive retinopathy disease of retina due to high blood pressure
intraocular pertaining to within the eye
iridic pertaining to the iris
iris contractile disc that forms colored, pigmented portion of eye, by the ciliary body, surrounding the pupil
lacrimal pertaining to tears
lacrimation production of tears
lens highly elastic, transparent biconvex body behind pupil of eye; surround & supported by fibers arising from ciliary body
macula yellowish region on retina lateral to & slightly below optic disc
contains fovea centralis macula
miosis contraction of pupil of the eye
mydriasis widening of pupil of the eye
ophthalmic pertaining to the eye
optic chiasm point at which optic nerve fibers cross in brain
optic disc region at back of eye where optic nerve meets retina
optic nerve rod & cone cells of retina to cerebral cortex in occipital lobe of the brain
palpebral pertaining to an eyelid
pupil circular opening in middle of iris; dark, central portion of the eye
pupillary pertaining to the pupil of the eye
refraction bending of light rays as they pass through cornea, lens, & fluids of eye
retina thin, delicate membrane continuous with optic nerve; sensitive nerve cell layer of eye
rod photoreceptor retinal cell; essential for seeing objects in low light & peripheral vision
sclera tough outer membrane that helps to maintain shape of eyeball & attached to the muscles that moce the eye
scotoma blind spot in the field of vision
thalamus relay center in brain through which optic nerve fibers pass on way to cerebral cortex
uvea vascular layer of the eye, including iris, choroids & ciliary body
viterous humor soft, jelly-like material that fills the posterior cavity & preserves eyeball shape
the eye is one of a pair of special sense organs that converts the energy of light into electrical nerve impulses and transmits those signals to the brain
The structures of the eye don't merely receive a light stimulus they adjust the incoming light and adapt to it to form the clearest image
The eyes are contained in two bony orbits at the front of the skull
external structure of the eye are the eyelids, eyebrows & eyelashes
lacrimal glands produce tears that moisten eye & eye muscles
there are three fibrous layers covering eyeball
white of the eye sclera
convex, transparent structure through which light passes to other parts of the eye the cornea
anteriorly the chorois is joined to the iris
muscles of the iris constrict & dilate the pupil in response to the intensity of light
Contraction or relaxation of the ciliary body changes the shape and size of the lens
fundus inner posterior sirface of eye including retina & its structures and optic disc & macula lutea
macula lutea is another term for the macula
multilayered structure, outermost layer of which contains light-sensitive cells-rods and cones the retina
optic disc is also called the blind spot
only area of retina that is not sensitive to light the optic disc
anterior cavity consist of anterior & posterior chambers
anterior cavity contains the aqueous humor
nourishes the iris, lens & cornea aqueous humor
posterior cavity occupies all internal space behind the lens
process that brings light rays into focus on retina & stimulates the rods & cones refraction
angle of refraction varies with density of structure through which light rays pass
refracting media of the eye are the cornea, aqueous humor, lens & vitreous humor
in accommodation the lens flattens to perceive objects that are distant
in accommodation the lens flattens because the ciliary body relaxes
in accommodation the lens thickens, or becomes rounded to perceive objects that are near
in accommodation the lens thickens, or becomes rounded, because the ciliary body contracts
when muscles of iris contract, the pupil constricts, which eliiminates light rays that cannot be sufficiently refracted to focus on retina
contraction of the iris, causing pupil constriction, is a function to natrually protect the retina
in addition to refraction. accommodation & constriction, accurate vision relies on the coordinated/parallel movement of the eyes by the eye muscles
rods & cones of retina contain chemicals that undergo changes in the presence of light
chemical changes, of rods/cones, produce nerve impulses
nerve impulses produced by rods/cones are transmitted to the brain and interpreted as visual images
cylindrical cells that enable detection of low-intensity light rods
most of 120 million rods of eye are located around periphery of retina
there are about 6.5 million cones which produce vision in bright light and help us to see color
how many types of cones in retina? three
each cone in retina is sensitive to one of three primary colors
Color blindness occurs when there is an absence of cones in the retina
a defect in production of the chemicals cones contain causes color blindness
The most common form of color blindness affects the ability to distinguish reds from greens
impulses are conveyed along the optic nerve
the optic nerve sends impulses along the optic chiasm
at the junction of the optic nerve and optic chiasm fibers from each optic nerve cross over to the other side
fibers from the each visual field of eye form the left/right optic tract
impulses move acros each optic tract to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe
occipital lobe is an area in posterir of brain where visual stimuli is interpreted
when the images from both eyes fuse in brain the produce a single 3D image
binocular vision use of both eyes together, without diplopia
covergence is the movement of the eyes in unison toward a common point of fixation
the ability to see one image using both eyes is because convergence allows us to have binocular vision