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P Mylin Study Stack

Nervous System

cerebr/o cerebrum
cran/i cranium (skull)
dendr/o tree
encephal/o brain
gangli/o ganglion (knot or knot like mass)
gli/o glue; neurological tissue
kinesi/o movement
lept/o slender
lex/o word, phrase
mening/o meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
meningi/o meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
myel/o bone marrow; spinal cord
narc/o stupor; numbness; sleep
neur/o nerve
radicul/o nerve root
sthen/o strength
thalam/o thalamus
thec/o sheath
ton/o tension
ventricul/o ventricle
-algesia pain
-algia pain
-asthenia weakness, debility
-esthesia feeling
-kinesia movement
-lepsy seizure
-paresis partial paralysis
-phasia speech
-plegia paralysis
-taxia order, coordination
pachy- thick
para- near, beside; beyond
syn- union, together, joined
uni- one
Inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact agnosia
Weakness, debility, or loss of strength asthenia
Lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement ataxia
Premonitory awareness of an aproaching physical or mental disorder; peculiar sensation that precedes seizures aura
Developmental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy, usually accompanied by an inability to communicate even on a basic level autism
Injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed closed head trauma
Abnormally deep unconsciousness with absence of voluntary response to stimuli coma
Injury to the brain, occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of injury or trauma to the head concussion
Any sudden and violent contraction of one or more muscles convulsion
Broad term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment dementia
Inability to learn and process written language despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability, and exposure dyslexia
Autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Painful, acute infectious disease of the posterior root ganglia of only a few segments of the spinal or cranial nerves; also called shingles herpes zoster
Inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances, and mental deterioration Huntington chorea
Accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, causing increased intracranial pressure (ICP), thinning of brain tissue, and separation of cranial bones hydrocephalus
Abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli, also called sluggishness lethargy
Nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior neurosis
Paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor palsy
Facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve, associated with herpes virus Bell's palsy
Psychological disorder in which the major characteristic is an abdormal mood, usually mania or depression affective disorder
Eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain adequate weight for age and height and an all-consuming desire to remain thin anorexia nervosa
Psychological "worry" disorder characterized by excessive pondering or thinking "what if...." anxiety
Disorder affecting children and adults characterized by impulsiveness, overactivity, and the inability to remain focused on a task attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Mental disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, emotion, energy, and ability to function; also called manic-depressive illness bipolar disorder
Eating disorder characterized by binging (overeating) and purging (vomiting or use of laxatives) bulimia nervosa
Mood disorder associated with sadness, despair, discouragement, and, commonly, feelings of low self-esteem, guilt, and withdrawal depression
Mood disorder characterized by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganized behavior, and excessively elevated mood mania
Sudden, intense, overwhelming feeling of fear that comes without warning and is not attributable to any immediate danger panic attack
Type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and, sometimes, speech and learning ability Cerebral Palsy
Loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with or without loss of sensation Paralysis
Paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke hemiplegia
Paralysis of both lower limbs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord paraplegia
Paralysis of both arms and legs, typically as a result of trauma or disease of the upper spinal cord quadriplegia
Major emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individual is incapable of meeting challenges of daily life psychosis
Defect in which the neural tube (tissue that forms the brain and spinal cord in the fetus) fails to close during embryogenesis Spina bifida
Form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude through the spine menengocele
Most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine myelomeningocele
Form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord i covered with a layer of skin occulta
Sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity parasthesia
Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis poliomyelitis
Acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver, and possibly, the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes Reye syndrome
Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the base of the spine, down the thigh, and radiating down the leg due to a compressed nerve sciatica
Temporary loss of consciousness due to the sudden decline of blood flow to the brain; also called fainting syncope
Syncope due to a drop in blood pressure brought on by the response of the nervous system to abrupt emotional stress, pain or trauma vasovagal syncope
General type of seizure characterized by the loss of consciousness and stiffening of the body (tonic phase) followed by rhythmic, jerking movements (clonic phase) tonic-clonic seizure
Temporary interference with blood supply to the brain lasting from a few minutes to a few hours (mini stroke) transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses electroencephalography (EEG)
Recording of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess nerve damage electromyography EMG)
Needle puncture of spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents in to the spinal cord, or remove fluid to allow other fluids to be injected;also called spinal puncture and spinal tap lumbar puncture
Test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve nerve conduction velocity
Series of chemical, microscopic, and microbial tests used to diagnose disorders of the central nervous system, including viral, and bacterial infections, tumors and hemorrhage cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Radiology of the blood vessels after introduction of a contrast medium angiography
Angiography of blood vessels of the brain after injection of a contrast medium cerebral angiography
Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles computed tomography (CT)
Diagnostic radiological examination of the spinal canal, nerve roots, and spinal cord after injection of contrast medium into the spinal canal myelogpaphy
Scan using tomography to record the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produce a crsss-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine presence of disease positron emission tomography (PET)
Technique that wxposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it cryosurgery
Precise method of locating and destroying circumscribed lesions on specific, tiny areas of pathological tissue in deep-seated structures of the CNS stereotaxic radiosurgery
Partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements, or emotional disurbances thalamotomy
Transection of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord tractotomy
Technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracrenial pressure trephination
Interruption of the function of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulcer vagotomy
Treat phychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system (group of brain structures), which controls emotions antipsychotics
Treat multiple symptoms of depression by increasing levels of specific neurotransmitters antidepressants
Depress central nervous system (CS) functions, promote sedation and sleep, and relieve agitation, anxiousness, and restlessness hypnotics
Reduce impulsive behavior by increasing the level of neurotransmitters psychostimulants
AD, ADAD Alzheimer Disease
ADD attention deficit disorder
ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ANS autonomic nervous system
BEAM brain electrical activity mapping
CNS central nervous system
CP cerebral palsy
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CT computed tomography
CVA cerebrovascular accident
EEG electroencephalography
EMG electromyography
ICP intracranial pressure
LOC loss of consciousness
LP lumbar puncture
MEG magnetoencephalography
MRA magnetic resonance angiography
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS musculoskeletal; multiple sclerosis; mental status; mitral stenosis
NCV nerve conduction velocity
PET positron emission tomography
PNS peripheral nervous system
SNS sympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system
TIA transient ischemic attack
Imaging procedure using high frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor ultrasonography
Created by: pmylin