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Med Term Mod14

Disorders of Lymphatic & Immune Systems

AIDS syndrome associated with suppression of immune system & marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms & neurological problems
HIV causes AIDS
HIV destroys helper T cells
destruction of helper T cells disrupts cell-mediated immune response, allowing infections to occur
opportunistic infections immunosupressed patients have a lowered resistance which allows infection by bacteria & parasites that are usually contained by normal defenses
HIV can cause opportunistic infections
Kaposi sarcoma cancer arising from lining cells of capillaries producing bluish=red skin nodules
lymphoma cancer of lym nodes
Wasting syndrome marked b y weight loss & decreased muscular strength, appetite & mental activity
might occur with AIDS Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma & Wasting syndrome
HIV-positive patients who were exposed to HIV & now have antibodies in their bloodstream
HIV has been known to remain ____ for up to 10 yrs asymptomatic
drugs used to treat AIDS inhibit the viral enzyme reverse transriptase (RT)
after invading helper Tcells HIV releases RT
examples of RTIs zidovudine & lampivudine
HIV needs ____ to make viral proteins, essential to structure & reproduction protease
there is a 2nd class of anti-HIV drugs which are inhibitors of viral protease (proteolytic) enzyme
examples of protease inhibitors are nelfinavir & amprenavir
combination of RT and protease inhibitors HAART
allergy abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
anaphylaxis extraordinary hypersensitivity reaction occurs throughout the body
this can be life threatening but if treatment given immediately and airway kept open patient's usually survive anaphylaxis
atopic dermatitis hypersensitivity, or allergic state arising from an inherited predisposition, of the skin to soaps, cosmestics or chemicals
atopy intense allergic reastion influenced by hereditary tendancy or predisposition
atopic realted to atopy
someone who is atopic is prone to allergies
lymphoma malignant tumor of lymph nodes & lymph tissue
types of lymphoma vary according to particular cell type & degree of differentiation
Hodgkin disease malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue in spleen & lymph nodes
characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, fever, weakness & loss of weight & appetite Hodgkin disease
diagnosis of hodgkin disease is often made by indenifying the malignant cell (Reed-Sternberg cell)
Reed-Sternberg cell are different giant cells found on light microscopy in biopsies from individuals with Hodgkin's lymphoma & certain other disorders;usually derived from B lymphocytes
if Hodgkin disease is localized treatment may include radiotherapy or chemotherapy
if Hodgkin disease is widespread chemotherapy is given alone
types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma include follicular lymphoma & large cell lymphoma
follicular lymphoma composed of collections of small lymphocytes in a follicle/nodule arrangement
large cell lymphoma composed of large lymphocytes that infiltrate nodes & tissues diffusely
chemotherapy may cure/stop this disease non-Hodgkin lymphoma
multiple myeloma malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
tumor composed of antibody-producing B lymphocytes associated with high levels of one of the specific immunogolbulins multiple myeloma
usually high levels of ___ are found in multiple myelome IgG
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia malignant tumor of B cells, which produce large quantities of IgM
increased IgM concentration impairs passage of blood through capillaries in brain & eyes, causing hyperviscosity syndrome
hyperviscosity syndrome thickening of the blood
thymoma malignant tumor of thymus gland
signs & symptoms of thmoma are cough, dyspnea, dysphagia, fever, chest pain, weight loss & anorexia
the tumor, in thmoma, if often associated with disorders of the immune system that cause muscular weakness or anemia
thymoma treatments include surgery to remove tumor is principal, postop radiation therapy is used for patients with evidence that tumor has spread
pneumonitis inflammation of the lung
emergency treatments for anaphylaxis epinephrine and antihistamines
allergic rhinitis hay fever,
inflammation of the nasal passages; a watery nasal discharge; sneezing; and itching around the eyes, nose, throat, and mout symptoms of allergic rhinitis
allergic rhinitis is the most common type of immune system hypersensitivity and may occur year-round or seasonally
examples of atopic conditions are asthma, uticaria, & atopic dermatitis
uticaria hives
examples of immediate hypersensitivity reactions that result from altered humoral immunity anaphylaxis, allergic rhinitis & atopic disorders
tranfusion reaction potentially fatal response that occurs when a recipient receives incompatible blood
other types of hypersensitivity reactions, such as hives, are delayed responses caused by alterations in cell-mediated immunity
Deficiencies of the immune system may be congenital or acquired
when th body rejects a transplanted organ example of isoimmunity
isoimmunity normal undesirable immunity
HIV reversing the normal process copies itself by using RNA to synthesize a DNA molecule
HIV destroys cell mediated immunity
HIV enters the cytoplasm, where it uncoats & uses its enzyme ______ to make viral DNA from its RNA reverse transcriptase
HIV viral DMA inserts itself into the host chromosome using the ciral enzyme ___ integrase
the enzyme ___ helps to spread the AIDS virus throughout the body protease