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AL 101-Chapter 6


cyst/o, vesic/o bladder, sac
glomerul/o glomerulus
meat/o meatus (opening)
nephr/o, ren/o kidney
pyel/o renal pelvis
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
albumin/o albumin
azot/o urea, nitrogen
blast/o developing cell, germ cell
glyc/o, glycos/o sugar
hydr/o water
lith/o stone, calculus
noct/i night
olig/o scanty, few
son/o sound
tom/o cut, section
urin/o, ur/o urine, urinary tract
-gram record, radiographic image
-iasis, -esis condition
-lysis loosening, dissolution, separating
-megaly enlargement
-ptosis drooping, sagging, prolapse
-rrhaphy suturing, repairing
-tripsy surgical crushing
-trophy nourishment, development
-uria urine, urination
kidneys two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum. Their function is to remove waste products from the blood & to aid in maintaining water & electrolytes.
nephron urine-producing microscopic structure. Approximately 1 million nephrons are located in each kidney.
glomerulus (pl. glomeruli) cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron. The process of filtering the blood, thereby forming urine, begins here.
renal pelvis funnel-shaped reservoir that collects the urine & passes it to the ureter
hilum indentation on the medial side of the kidney where the ureter leaves the kidney
ureters two slender tubes, approximately 10-13 inches (26-33 cm) long, that receive the urine from the kidneys & carry it to the posterior portion of the bladder
urinary bladder muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine. As it fills, the thick, muscular wall becomes thinner, and the organ increases in size.
urethra lowest part of the urinary tract, through which the urine passes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. This narrow tube varies in length by sex. It is approximately 1.5 inches/3.8 cm long in females & approximately 8 inches/20 cm in males.
urinary meatus opening through which the urine passes to the outside
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
cystocele protrusion of the bladder
cystolith stone in the bladder
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney
hydronephrosis abnormal condition of water in the kidney (distension of the renal pelvis with urine because of an obstruction)
nephritis inflammation of a kidney
nephroblastoma kidney tumor containing developing cell (malignant tumor) (also called WILMS' TUMOR)
nephrohypertrophy excessive development (increase in size) of the kidney
nephrolithiasis condition of stone(s) in the kidney
nephroma tumor of the kidney
nephromegaly enlargement of the kidney
nephroptosis drooping kidney
pyelitis inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis inflammation of the renal pelvis & the kidney
uremia condition of urine (urea) in the blood (toxic condition resulting from the retention of byproducts of the kidney in the blood)
ureteritis inflammation of a ureter
ureterocele protrusion of a ureter
ureterolithiasis condition of stones in the ureters
ureterostenosis narrowing of the ureter
urethrocystitis inflammation of the urethra & the bladder
epispadias congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the upper surface of the penis
hypospadias congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the underside of the penis; a similar defect can occur in the female
polysystic kidney disease condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
renal calculus (pl. calculi) stone in the kidney
renal hypertension elevated blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
sepsis a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the bloodstream, causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection (also called SEPTICEMIA)
urinary retention abnormal accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate
urinary suppression sudden stoppage of urine formation
urinary tract infection (UTI) infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract
acute renal failure (ARF) a sudden & severe reduction in renal function resulting in a collection of metabolic waste in the body. Prompt treatment can reverse the condition & recovery can occur.
chronic renal failure (CRF) unlike ARF, is a progressive, irreversible, loss of renal function & the onset of uremia
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) is what chronic renal failure is called when kidney function is too poor to sustain life
cystectomy excision of the bladder
cystolithotomy incision of the bladder to remove a stone
cystorrpaphy suturing the bladder
cystostomy creating an artificial opening into the bladder
cystotomy, vesicotomy incision of the bladder
lithotripsy surgical crushing of a stone
meatotomy incision of the meatus
nephrectomy excision of a kidney
nephrolysis separating the kidney (from other body structures)
nephropexy surgical fixation of the kidney
nephropyelolithotomy incision through the kidney to the renal pelvis to remove a stone
nephrostomy creation of an artificial opening into the kidney
pyelolithotomy incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone
pyeloplasty surgical repair of the renal pelvis
ureterectomy excision of a ureter
ureterostomy creation of an artificial opening into the ureter
urethroplasty surgical repair of the urethra
vesicourethral suspension suspension pertaining to the bladder & urethra
stress incontinence the involuntary intermittent leakage of urine as a result of pressure, from a cough or sneeze, on the weakened area around the urethra & bladder.
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), also called SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY (SWL) a noninvasive treatment for removal of kidney or ureteral stone(s). By using ultrasound & fluoroscopic imaging, the stone is positioned at a focal point. Repeated firing of shock waves renders the stone into fragments that pass from the body in the urine
fulguration destruction of living tissue with an electric spark (a method commonly used to remove bladder growths)
renal transplant surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace a non-functioning kidney
cystogram radiographic image of the bladder
cystography radiographic imaging of the bladder
intravenous urogram (IVU) radiographic image of the urinary tract (with contrast medium injected intravenously) (also called INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM - IVP)
nephrogram radiographic image of the kidney
nephrography radiographic imaging of the kidney
nephrosonography process of recording the kidney using sound (an ultrasound test)
nephrotomogram sectional radiographic image of the kidney
renogram (graphic) record of the kidney (produced by radioactivity after injecting a radiopharmaceutical, or radioactive material, into the blood) (a nuclear medicine test)
retrograde urogram radiographic image of the urinary tract (retrograde means to move in a direction opposite from normal) with contrast medium instilled through urethral catheters by a cystoscope
voiding cystourethropraphy (VCUG) radiographic imaging of the bladder & the urethra. Radiopaque dye is instilled in the bladder. Radiographic images called cystourethrograms are taken of the bladder & during urination of the dye.
cystoscope instrument used for visual examination of the bladder
cystoscopy visual examination of the bladder
meatoscope instrument used for visual examination of the meatus
meatoscopy visual examination of the meatus
nephroscopy visual examination of the kidney
ureteroscopy visual examination of the ureter
urethroscope instrument used for visual examination of the urethra
urinometer instrument used to measure (the specific gravity of) urine
KUB (kidney, ureter, & bladder) a simple radiographic image of the abdomen. It is often used to view the kidneys, ureters, & bladder to determine size, shape, & location. Also used to identify calculi in the kidney, ureters, or bladder, or to diagnose intestinal obstruction.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) a blood test that measures the amount of urea in the blood; used to determine kidney function. An increased BUN indicates renal dysfunction.
creatinine a blood test that measures the amount of creatinine in the blood. An elevated amount indicates impaired kidney function.
specific gravity (SG) a test performed on a urine specimen to measure the concentrating or diluting ability of the kidneys
urinalysis (UA) multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen
albuminuria albumin in the urine (albumin is an important protein in the blood, but when found in the urine, it indicates a kidney problem)
anuria absence of urine (failure of the kidney to produce urine)
azotemia (excessive) urea & nitrogenous substances in the blood
diuresis condition of urine passing through (increased amount of urine)
dysuria difficult or painful urination
glycosuria sugar (glucose) in the urine
hematuria blood in the urine
meatal pertaining to the meatus
nephrologist a physician who studies & treats diseases of the kidney
nephrology study of the kidney (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the kidney)
nocturia night urination
oliguria scanty urine (amount)
polyuriia much (excessive) urine
pyuria pus in the urine
urinary pertaining to urine
urologist a physician who studies & treats (diseases of) the urinary tract
urology study of the urinary tract (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the male & female urinary systems & the male reproductive system)
catheter (cath) flexible, tubelike device, such as a urinary catheter, for withdrawing or instilling fluids
distended stretched out (a bladder is distended when filled with urine)
diuretic agent that increases the formation & excretion of urine
enuresis involuntary urination
hemodialysis (HD) procedure for removing impurities from the blood because of an inability of the kidneys to do so
nocturnal enuresis bed-wetting
diurnal eneuresis daytime wetting, which may be caused by a small bladder
incontinence inability to control bladder and/or bowels
micturate to urinate or void
peritoneal dialysis procedure for removing toxic wastes when the kidney is unable to do so; the peritoneal cavity is used as the receptacle for the fluid used in the dialysis
stricture abnormal narrowing, such as a urethral stricture
urinal receptacle for urine
urinary catheterization passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder to withdraw urine
urodynamics pertaining to the force & flow of urine within the urinary tract
void to empty or evacuate waste material, especially urine
Created by: Ann Callies Ann Callies