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Chapter 8 Digestive

Medical Terminology

Ascending colon travels upward from the cecum the under surface of the liver,ascending means up ward
transverse colon passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen. transverse means across
descending colon travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon. descending means downward
sigmoid colon is an S shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below. Sigmoid means S shaped
gallbladder is a pear shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver. It stores and concentrates the bile for later use. When bile is needed the gallbladder contracts forcing bile out through the biliary tree
pyloric sphincter is the ring like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestines
duodenum is the first portion of the small intestine it extends fro the pylorus to the jejunum
jejunum is the middle portion of the small intestine. it extends from the duodenum to the ileum.
ileum which is the last longest portion of the small intestine, it extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine.
pylorus is the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestines.
cecum is a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen. it extends from the end of the ileum to the beginning of the colon.
ileocecal sphincter is the ring like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum fo the large intestine
volvulus is the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction. usually occurs in infancy.
intussusception is the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part. rare condition sometimes found in infants and young children
diverticulum is a small pouch or sac occurring in the lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the colon
burxism is the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress.
Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance. This leads to an intense fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a normal body weight voluntary starvation and excessive exercise cause emaciated; thin
dyspepsia is pain or discomfort in digestion means indigestion
dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing
pyrosis heartburn burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus
regurgitation is the return of swallowed food into the mouth
bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder of binge eating followed by self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics
bolous is a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed.
borborygmus is the rumbling nose caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
cachexia is a condition of physical wasting away due to the body not able to absorb nutrients
botulism known as food poisoning it transmitted through contaminated food or an infected wound
jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
cirrhosis is a progressive degenerative disease of the liver that is often caused by excessive alcohol use or by viral hepatitis B or C
eructation is the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
flatulence known as flatus is the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum.
aerophagia is the excessive swallowing of air
xerostomia is dry mouth is a lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by salivary glands. caused by medications,radiations discomfort with swallowing, dental decay food tastes different
gastroduodenostomy is the connection between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum;first part of the small intestines. this procedure is performed for stomach cancer or to remove the pyloric valve
ileostomy is the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum which is at the end of the small intestines and the outside of the abdomen wall
colostomy is an surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface. the segment below the ostomy is usually removed this is used to temporary divert feces from an area that needs to heal
cholelithiasis is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cheilosis known as cheilitis is a disorders of the lips characterized by crack like sores at the corners of the mouth
stomatomycosis is any disease of the mouth due to fungus example thrush
cholangiography is a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium used to identify obstructions in the liver or bile ducts the results is a cholangiogram
anabolism is the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients
catabolism is the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide
metabolism includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients; it consist of two parts: anabolism and catabolism
aerophagia is the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
ascites is an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity: serous is a substance having a watery consistency.
esophagogastroduodenoscopy is an endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract which includes the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum
gastroesophageal known as the GERD is the upward flow of acid from the stomach. means reflux when this occurs the stomach acid irritates and damages the delicate lining of the esophagus
anastomosis is a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
Created by: cameronslc