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Med Term Mod 13

Terms & Meanings

blood connective tissue composed of plasma & formed elements, or blood cells, suspended in blood plasma
plasma clear, straw-colored flui; consisting primarily of water, but also contains proteins, sugar, salts, hormoned & vitamins
plasma consists of 55% of the blood's total volume
plasma also picks up certain wastes & gases at certain times
albumin protein found in blood
antibody protein made by WBC in response to antigens in blood
anticoagulant substance that prevents blood clotting
antigen foreign agent that stimulates the production of an antibody
Coombs test antiglobulin test
billirubin orange-yellow pigment found in bile
coagulation process of blood clotting
colony-stimulating factor protein that stimulates growth & proliferation of WBC (granulocytes)
cytology study of cells
differentiation specialization of cells from immature to mature forms
erythroblast immature, developing RBC
erythropoiesis formation of RBC
erythropoietin hormone produced by kidney to stimulate bone marrow to produce erythrocytes
fibrin protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
fibrinogen plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in clotting process
globulins major blood proteins; immunoglobulins, alpha, beta, & gamma globulins are examples
granulocyte WBC with numerous dark-staining granules
hematopoiesis formation of blood cells
hemoglobin blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in RBC
hemolysis destruction/breakdown of blood; specifically RBC
hemostasis stoppage of bleeding/circulation of blood
heparin anticoagulant found in blood & tissues
immune system response of immune system to foreign invasion
immunoglobin antibody-containing protein in the blood;IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE
leukocyte white blood cell
lymphocyte white blood cell with a single nucleus (mononuclear); capable of producing anitbodies
macrophage large phagocytic cell migrating from blood into tissues
megakaryocyte large, giant cell with a big nucleus; platlet precursor found in bone marrow
monoblast immature monocyte
monocyte WBC (agranulocyte) with one large nucleus; enters tissues as macrophages
mononuclear pertaining to a WBC with a single, round nucleus; monocyte & lymphocyte
myeloblast immature granulocytic WBC; cell normally only found in bone marrow
myelogenous pertaining to cells produced in bone marrow
myeloid derived from bone marrow
myelopoiesis formation & development of bone marrow/cells tha originate from it
neutrophil WBC with dark granules that stain with a neutral dye
phagocyte formed in bone marrow & body's first line of defense against disease neutrophil
pallative relieving, but not curing illness
phagocyte cell that engulfs another cell/foreign organism & destroys it
platlet clotting cell/thrombocyte
prothrombin plasma protein converted to thrombin in clotting process
polymophonuclear pertaining to a multi-lobed nucleus (in granulocytic WBCs)
reticulocyte immature erythrocyte with network of strands
Rh factor antigen/protein on RBCs of Rh positive individuals
serum plasma minus clotting proteins, prothrombin & fibrinogen, and clotting cells
stem cell unspecialized cell that gives rise to all forms of specialized cells in body
are found in the bone marrow and lead to the development of all types of blood cells hematopoietic stem cells
thrombin enzyme necessary for blood clotting
converts fibrinogen to fibrin in the clotting process thrombin
thrombocyte platlet; clotting cell
hemocytoblasts are another name for hematopoietic stem cells
hematopoietic stem cells are pluripotent cells, which means they can develop into several different mature cell types, in response to hormonal influence
stem cells undergo _____ to form specialized cell types differentiation
in the bone marrow the cells are differentiated into proerythroblasts, megakaryoblasts & myeloblasts
in the lymph tissue these cells are formed lymphoblasts & monoblasts
pliable disks that are concave on both sides; perform pH maintenance & carrying respiratory gases erythrocytes
term used to refer to a developing, not quite mature, RBC reticulocyte
hemobglobin is made up of heme, which is the pigmented, iron-containing portion of the molecule
hemobglobin is made up of globin, which is a protein chain
RBC have no nucleus, instead they are packed with hundreds of molecules of hemoglobin
when oxygen attaches to lossely to the iron, in hemoglobin, the oxygenated hemoglobin is now oxyhemoglobin
when oxygen detaches from the hemoglobin it diffuses from the blood to the cells
oxygen diffused from the blood is used during cellular metabolism
RBC live for about 120 days
macrophages break RBCs into iron and protein
protein portion of the hemoglobin, broken down by macrophages, converts to amino acids used to make new proteins
iron portion of the hemoglobin, broken down by macrophages, is either stored in the livver or returned to bone marrow
basophils sercrete heparin & histamine
histamine chemical released in allergic inflammatoty reactions
active in parasitic infections basophils
WBCs that contain large cytoplasmic granules that stain orange-red with acidic dye eosinophils
eosinophils increase in numbers to protect from allergens & play important role in defending against parasitic infections
first type of WBC to arrive at the scene of injury neutrophils
all granulocytes are formed in the red bone marrow
as granculocytes mature they develop multilobed nuclei making them polymorphonuclear
polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes granulocytes, especially neutrophils, that have developed multilobed nuclei
white blood cells and are usually spoken of in terms of two types: T cells & B cells
mononuclear leukocytes lymphocytes and monocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes are also agranulocytes
not only mononuclear leukocytes, but also the largest of the leukocytes monocytes
these cells help to mediate the body's immune system lymphocytes
plasma consists of 90% water & 10% other substances
gammaglobulins are called immunoglobulins
albumin helps to maintain the proper balance of water between capillaries & tissues
gamma globulins are also called immunoglobulins
immunoglobulins protects body from antigens
component of plasma protein that helps maintain water balance between capillaries & tissues albumin
some antigens exist normally within the body; some bind to the surface of RBCs
A antigens, on RBCs, are found on the erythrocyte membrane
the mixing of antigens & antibodies, if given the wrong blood type, will cause clumping of the blood, which is potentially fatal
O blood type is condsiered the universal donor
universal donor blood type is able to be andmistered because there would not be a antigen-antibody reaction
RhoGAM drug, when administered during pregnancy and immediately after delivery, prevents the Rh- mother from forming anti-Rh antibodies
with assistance of ________ prothrombin activator triggers conversion of prothrombin to thrombin blood calcium
fibrin, a mesh-like substance, traps red blood cells in its gel to form a stable/fibrin clot
thrombin reacts with fibrinigen to change a forming clor to a fibrous gell, called fibrin
first type of cell to form a clot at the injury site is a platlet
substance that initiates coagulation after initial clotting at an injury site thromboplastin
Clot formation in blood vessels is favored by two conditions: slower than normal blood flow and rough spots along the lining of the blood vessel
antigen found on the RBC surface Rh factor
dyscrasias abnormal conditions of blood/bone marrow