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Med Term Mod 12

Diagnostic & Pathological Terms & Meanings

listening to sounds within the body ausciltation
ausciltation procedure used for diagnosing conditions of lungs, pleura, heart & abdomen, as well as condiiton of fetus during pregnancy
percussion over a solid organ produces a ____ sound dull
percussion over a hollow organ produces a ____ sound resonant
resonant hollow note
resonance is replaced by dulness, during purcussion, when lungs/pleural cavity are filled with fluid, making them more dense
when the pleura are thickened by inflammation, scarring or neoplastic cells it casues a pleural rub
a pleural rub is heard by auscultation
a pleural rub can be felt by placing the fingers on the chest wall
when there is fluid on the alveoli, a fine crackling sound can be heard during inspiration on auscultation
indicates chest congestion & inflammation in larger bronchial tubes rhonchus/rhonchi
often green or brown sputum, resulting from infection or asthma purulent
blood-tinged sputum is suggestive of TB or malignancy
growing sputum in a nutrient medium to detect presence of a pathogen sputum culture
culture & sensitivity (C&S) studies indetify the sputum pathogen & determine which antibiotic will be effective in destroying/reducing its growth
strained, high-pitched, relatively loud sound made on inspiration stridor
usually caused by tightening on bronchi in patients with asthma wheeze
croup the most common causative agents of this acute viral infection are flu viruses & respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) common cause of bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia, & common cold, especially in children
in tissue culture, forms syncytia or giant cells, so that cytoplasm flows together RSV
corynebacterium is diptheria bacterium
when a patient has diptheria inflammation occurs, and a leathery, opaque membrane forms in pahrynx & respiratory tract
to protect against diptheria immunizations given to children between 6-8 weeks containing weakened antigens to produce antibodies against this bacteria
combination of vaccines, to include pertussis, diptheria, & tetanus DPT
Greek word meaning dropping epistaxis
commonly results from irritation of nasal mucous membranes, trauma, Vitamin K deficiency, clotting abnormalities, or hypertension nosebloods
highly contagious bacterial infection caused by Bordetella pertussis whooping cough
pertussis characterized by paroxysmal coughing that ends in loud inspiration
asthma associated signs/symptoms include dyspnea, wheezing, & cough
triggers to asthmatic attacks include exercise, strong odors, cold air, stress, allergens & medications
include inhaled anti-inflammatory agent, bronchodialtors & trigger avoidance treatments for asthma
long-term control anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of asthma glucocorticoids
quick-relief control anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of asthma albuterol & theophylline
respiratory disorder characterized by chronic, abnormal dilation of the bronchi bronchiectasis
treatments for bronchiectasis are pallative & include antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodialtors, respiratory therapy & surgical resection
etiologic factors: cigarette smoking & infection; signs/symptoms: excessive secretion of mucus, productive cough & obstructive respiratory passageway chronic bronchitis
chronic bronchitis & emphysema are airway obstruction associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
exocrine glands effected are pancreas, sweat glands, & epithelium of respiratory tract cystic fibrosis
chronic airway obstruction, infection, bronchiectasis, & respiratory failure are all results of cystic fibrosis
the ___ responsible for systic fibrosis in known, and those carriers can be identified gene
lung transplantation can extend life & restore lung function; there is no known cure for those with cystic fibrosis
condition characterized by incomplete expansion/collapse of the alveoli atelectasis
acute atelectasis requires removal of underlying cause & therapy to reopen airways
pulmonary artery pressure rises & right side of heart must work harder to pump blood leading to right ventricular hypertrophy & heart failure due to emphysema
most frequent fatal malignancy lung cancers
non-small cell lung cancers adenocarcinoma & squamous cell carcinoma
adenocarcinoma dervied from mucus-secreting cells
squamous cell carcinoma derived from the lining cells of the upper airway
stage of a tumor determined by size & location, including any distant areas of spread
when cancer is advanced, with spread to lymph nodes or mediastinum, or in the case of metastic disease, the therapy options include radiation & chemotherapy
surgery may curative for _____ tumors localized
small cell lung cancer derives from small, round to oval secretory cells found in pulmonary epithelium
spreads rapidly through the lymphatic system & bloodstream; has a poor prognosis small cell lung cancer
include radiation & chemotherapy treatements for small cell lung cancer
pneumoconiosis forms are named by the type of dust particle inhaled
anthracosis, asbetosis & silicosis are all types of pneumoconiosis
pneumococci, staphylococci & other bacteria, fungi & viruses are etiological agents of pneumonia
pneumonia infection damaged alveolar membranes so that an exudate leading to the aveoli sacs being "glued together"; this makes air exchange less effective
lobar pneumonia fluid, blood cells, and other debris consolidate, or solidify, within the alveoli of one or more lobes
bronchopneumonia consolidation occurs primarily in the terminal bronchioles, affecting a smaller area and resulting in milder symptoms
community-acquired pneumonia results from contagious respiratory infection, caused by variety of viruses/bacteria
hospital-acquired pneumonia acquired during a hopsital stay
aspiration pneumonia caused by material lodging in bronchi/lungs
large collection of pus, bacterial infection, in lungs pulmonary abcess
caused by inability of heart to pump blood which backs up in pulmonary blood vessels & fluid seeps out into alveoli & bronchioles pulmonary edema
requires immediate medical attention, including medications, oxygen in high concentrations & patients maintaining sitting position acute pulmonary edema
often causes acute pleuric chest pain, & may be associated with bloody sputum, fever & respiratory insufficiency pulmonary embolism
diagnosis of PE is provided by ____________ that reveal areas of lung that lack adequate blood supply ventilation-perfusion scans
CT scans are able to reveal obstruction of pulmonary vessels in order to diagnose PE
may be result of any inflammation/irritation caused by TB, pneumonia, or pneunoconiosis pulmonary fibrosis
chronic disorder of unknown origin, involing development of inflammatory lesions & proliferation of lymphatic tissue sarcoidosis
bacilli invade lungs producing small tubercules of infection; usually asymptomatic & can be seen on chest xray TB
uses intradermal injection to test for previous or active TB Mantoux skin test
mesotheliomas are composed of mesothelial tissue
the two types of pleural effusion are exudates & transudates
pleurisy (pleuritis) causes pleurodynia, dyspnea & in chronic cases pleural effusion
accompanied by chest pain, rapid breathing, weak pulse, dizziness & cough pneumothorax
pneumothorax lung collapse which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma
pleurodesis artifical production of ahesions between parietal & visceral pleura
treatment of persistent pneunothorax & severe pleural effusion pleurodesis
type of organism causing TB, test done to identify acid-fast bacillus
acute respiratory distress syndrome group of signs/symptoms including tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, hypoxymia & cyanosis associated with acute respiratory failure
pneumocystis pneumonia a type of pneumonia seen in patients with AIDS or other immunosupression
respiratory distress syndrome is also called hyaline membrane disease
ventilator-associated pneumonia bacterial pneumonia in a patient who has been on mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or more
affects children 3 years olf or younger croup
upper respiratory infections are highly contagious
disease that also causes production of a systemic toxin that is especially damaging to the tissues of the heart & central nervous system diptheria
obstructive sleep apnea sudden cessation of breathing during sleep
sleep apnea can result in hypoxia, cognitive impairment, hypertension, dysrhythmias & death (in severe cases)
device used for patients with OSA CPAP, device used to relieve airway obstruction
another device used to relieve airway obstruction, especially in emergency situations tracheostomy
obstructive pulmonary disease group of disease characterized by difficult expiration
also called reactive airway disease asthma
diagnosis of chronic bronchitic involves chest xrays, sputum culture, & both carbon dioxide & oxygen partial pressure
treatments for chronic bronchitis include avoidance of irritants & expectorants
bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer arising from bronchi; includes SCLC & NSCLC
usually develops in peripheral lung tissue, is highly metastic & the most common type of lung cancer adenocarcinoma
tends to develop from lining of bronchial passages, doesn't metastisize rapidly & has good prognosis squamous cell carcinoma
sweat test reveals elevated sodium & chloride levels of those with cystic fibrosis
bronchiectasis bacterial infection lower lobes of lungs; infection weakens walls of bronchi; purulent present with bacteria and mucus; collects within pockets of damaged bronchial walls
constant, productive cough and persistent crackles symptoms of bronchiectasis
crackles crackling sounds heard during inspiration when alveoli are filled with secretions
CT scans help to diagnose bronchiectasis by producing detailed visualization of thoracic structures in cross-section
chest tomograms CT scans that focus on cross-sectional images of thoracic structures
chest secretions, caused by bronchiectasis, can be identified with a bronchoscopy
bronchial washing irrigation of bronchi to collect specimens for lab exams; also called bronchial alveolar lavage
bronchial brushing insertion of a brush through the bronchoscope to obtain specimens, used for definitive diagnosis of bronchiectasis
diagnostic procedures used to diagnose pneumonia include chest xrays, sputum culture & percussion
oxygen therapy, antibiotics & analgesics are used to treat pneumonia
once inhaled they infect lower respiratory tract, causing inflammation of bronchioles & alveoli bacilli of TB
the immune system encloses the bacilli in small firm nodules called tubercles progression of TB
treatments for emphysema include reconditioning exercises, relaxation exercises of dyspnea & breathing retraining
medications used to treat emphysema help improve breathing efficiency
decreased compliance of lung tissue & diminished ability of lung to fully expand indetifies atelectasis as a restrictive lung disease
airway obstruction by secretions/foreign body or compression due to fluid/air/tumor in long may lead to collapse of alveoli
coughing & deep breathing after surgery help to prevent acute onset of atelectasis
common sites for lesions from sarcoidosis include lungs, spleen, liver, skin & mucous membranes
pulmonary sarcoidosis type of restrictive lung disease, which is benign; it is self-limiting disorder which may resolve without treatment
steriods are used to relieve symptoms & manage inflammation of pulmonary sarcoidosis
pleural effusion excessive fluid accumulates in pleural spaces, resulting from malignancy/trauma
fever, progressive dyspnea, & non-productive cough are results of pleural effusion
these help to detect pleural effusion chest xray & physical exam
when the cause of the pleural effusion is unknown this is performed thoracentesis
treatment of a pleural effusion includes tube thoracostomy
tube thoracostomy passing chest tube through an opening in skin of chest to continuously drain effusion
used to diagnose the presence of a pneumothorax a chest xray
adminstration of oxygen & aspiration of air from pleural space treatment of a pneumothorax
mesothelial tissue a flat layer of cells that cover surface of pleural membrane
mesothelioma is associated with exposure to asbestos
sugrical interventions, such as excision of pleura or removal of all/part of lung may extend life expectancy; this is fatal condition treatments of mesothelioma