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med term (ch8)

ch 8

ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone
ALS amyotrophic lateral scelerosis
ANS autonmic nervous system
CAT computerized axial tomography
CNS central nervous system
CT computed tomography
CVA cerebrovasculat accident; stroke
EEG electroencephalogram
EMG electromyography
EST electric shock theraphy
ICP intracranial pressure
LOC level of consciosuness
LP lumbar puncture
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS multiple sclerosis
MSLT multiple sleep latency test
NCS nerve conduction study
NPH normal-pressure hydrocephalus
NREM non-rapid eye movement
PEG pneumoencephalogram
PNS positrom emission tomography
REM rapid eye movement
RT reading test
SNS somatic nervous system
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TIA transient ischemic attack
alzhemier's disease deterioration of a person's intellectual functioning
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a servere weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups
anencephaly is an absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth, a congenital disorder
bell's play is a temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknwon infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed
brain absecess is a localized accumlation of pus located anywhere in the brain tissue due to an infectious process
carpal tunnel syndrome is a pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons,causing intermittent or continous pain that is greatest at night
cerebral concussion is a brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciosness lasting for a few seconds
cerebral contussion is a small, scattered venous hemorrhage in the brain "bruise on the brain"
cerebral palsy is a collective term used to describe congenital (at birth)brain damage that is permanent but not progressive
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) invloves death of a specific portion of brain tissue,resluting from a decrease in blood flow to that area of the brain; also called stroke
degenerative disk is the deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wear on the disk
encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as measles, mumps
epilepsy is a syndrome of recurring epsiodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain resulting in involuntary muscle movements called seizures
grand mal seizure is an epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousnes and by gerneralized involuntary muscular contraction
petit mal seizure are small seizures in which is a sudden temporary loss of consicousness lasting only a few seconds
guillian-barre syndrome is acute polyneuritis ('inflammtion of many nerves") of the PNS in which the myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in the decrease nerve impulses
headache (cephalalgia) involves pain)(varying in intensity from mild to severe) anywhere within the cranial cavity
migraine headache is a recurring, pulsating, vascular headache usually developing on one side of the head
cluster headache occurs typically two to thre hours after falling asleep; described as extreme paion around one eye that wakens the person from sleep
tension headache occurs from long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around the face, scalp, upper back and neck
hematomw, epidural is a collection of blood located above the dura mater and just below the skull
hematoma, subdural is a collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid layer of the meninges
herniated disk is rupture or herniation of the disk center (nucleus pulpsous) through the disk wall and into the spinal canal, causing pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots
huntington's chorea is an inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky,invlontary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons
hydrocephalus is an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that cuases the ventricles of the brain to dilate
intracranial tumors occur in any structural region of the brain
primary intracranial tumors arise from gilomas, maligant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue, and from tumors that arise from the meninges
metastatic intracranial tumors (secondary) occur as a result of metastasis from a primary site such as the lung or breast
myasthenia gravis is a chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder causing severe muscle weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue
multiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain. leaving it sclerosed(hardened) or scarred and interupting the flow of nerve impulses
meningitis (acute bacterial) is a serious bacterial infection of the meninges-the covering of the brain and spinal cord-that can have residual debilitating effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly
narcolepsy is a rare syndrome of uncontrolled sudden attacks of sleep
neuroblastoma is a highly maligant tumor of the sympathic nervous system
parkinson's disease is a degenerative,slowly progerssive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem;s motor system
peripheral neuritis is a general term indicating inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves, the effects being dependent on the particular nerve involved
poliomyelitis is an infectious viral disease entering through the uppper respiratory tract and affeting the ability of spinal cord and brain motor neuorns to receive stimulation
postpolio syndrome is progressive weakness occuring at least 30 years after the intial poliomyelitis attack
reye's syndrome is an acute brian progressive along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections
shingles (herpes zoster) is an acute viral infection seen mainly in adults who have had chicken pox
skull fracture( depressed) a broken segement of the skull bone that thrust into the brian as a result of direct force
spina bifida cystica is a congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back
meningocele is a cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protuding through the bony defect in the vertebrae contaning meninges and CSF
MENINGOMYELOCELE is a cystlike sac covered skin or thin membrane protuding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meniges,CSF, and spinal cord segments
spina bidfida occulta is a congenital defect of the CNS in which the bacl portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed
spinal cord injuries (paraplegia and quadriplegia) severe injuries to the spinal cord, such as vertebral dislocation of spinal cord function below the level of the injury
paraplegia (paralysis of the lower extremities)is caused by severe injury to the spinal cord in the thoracic or lumbar region,resulting in loss of sensory and motot control below the level of injury
quadriplegia follows severe trauma to the spinal cord between the fifth and seventh cervical vertebrae, generally resulting in loss of motor and sensory function below thelevel of injury
tay-sachs disease is a congenital disorder caused by altered lipid metabolism,resulting from an enzyme deficiency
trigeminal neuralgia (tic doloureux) short periods of severe unilateral pain, which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve
babinski's reflex can be tested by stroking the sole of the foot, beginning at midheel and moving upward and lateral to the toes
brain scan is a nuclear scanning of cranial content two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes
cerbral angiography is visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel
cerebrospinal fluid analysis CSF obtained from a lumbar puncture is analyzes for the presence of bacteria, blood, or maligant cells, as well as for the amount of protein and glucose present
CT scan of the brain computed tomography (CT) is the analysis of a three-dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as x-ray beams pass through successive horizontal layers of the brain
laminectomy is the surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more vertebrae to relieve pressure from the spianl cord
electromyography is the process of recording the electrical activity of mucsle by inserting a small needle into the muscle and delivering a small current that stimulates the muscle
chardotomy is a neurosurgical procedure for pain control accomplished through a laminectomy,in which there is surgical interference of pathways within the spinal cord that control pain
cisternal puncture involves insertion of a short, beveled spinalo needle into the cisterna magna (a shallow reservoir of CSF between the medulla and the cerebellum) to drain CSF or to obtain a CSF specimen
craniotomy is a surgical procedure that makes an opening into the skull
Created by: Courtneey