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Med Term Mod11

Patholgy - Heart & Blood Vessels

arrhythias problems with conduction/electrical system of heart; abnormal heart rhythms
bradycardia & atrioventricular block damage to AV node may cause its impulse to be too weak to activate AV node & impulses fail to reach ventricles, causing the heart to beat too slowly
partial atrioventricular block failure of impulses to reach ventricles occasionally causing heart to miss a beat in rhythm at regular intervals
complete atrioventricular block no impulses reach AV node from SA node, the ventricles contract slower than the atria & are not coordinated
right bundle branch block delay/ failure of impulses traveling through right bundle branches to ventricles
left bundle branch block delay/ failure of impulses traveling through left bundle branches to ventricles
cardiac pacemakers are used to overcome arrhythmias & keeps heart beating at proper rate
power source for a cardiac pacemaker is a generator containing a computer & lithium battery
pacemakers are implanted under the skin, just below collarbone, with wires/leads to both chambers of heart, usually on right side of heart
biventricular pacemaker newer version; treats delays/adnormalities in ventricular contractions & can improve symptoms of congestive heart failure
atrial flutter often symptomatic of heart disease
medication, electrical cardioversion or catheter abalation are used to treat atrial flutter
atrial fibrillation electrical impulses more randomly throughout atria, causing atria to quiver instead of contract in a coordinated rhythm
most common type of cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation
palpitations, fatigue, & shortness of breath are all syptoms of atrial fibrillation
patients are at risk for stroke becuase ineffective atrial contractions, leading to blood clot formation which may travel to brain atrial fibrillation
ventricular fibrillation the rapid contraction of the ventricles reflects a complete lack of organized electrical activity
sudden cardiac death or cardiac arrest will result unless help is provided immediately during ventricular fibrillation
cardioversion can interupt ventricular fibrillation
can be treat with a class of drugs called inotropes (digoxin is a common drug used in this class) that slow the heart rate. atrial fibrillation
candidates for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator include those who have had/at high risk for ventricular tachycardia, fibrillation, & cardiac arrest
automatic external defibrillators are used in emergency situations to reverse ventricular fibrillation
low-risk procedure that provides a permanent cure, in most situations, for cardiac arrhythmias
surgical treatment consists of removal of the constricted region & end-to-end anastomosis of aortic segments coarctation of aorta
usually occurs in premature infants, causing cyanosis, fatigue & rapid breathing patent ductus arteriosus
surgery via catheterization with coil embolization to "plug" the ductus may be used to correct patent ductus arteriosus
patent ductus arteriosus use of the drug indomthacin to promote closure, or surgery to correct
may be used to correct patent ductus arteriosus ligation via a small incision between the ribs
atrial septal defect small holes in septa between atria
ventricular septal defect small holes in septa between ventricles lets venous blood pass from right to left ventricle & out aorta without oxygenation
some close spontaneously, while other require open heart surgery to close the holes between the heart chambers septal defects
heart-lung machine connected to patient's circulatory system, relieves heart & lungs of pumping & oxygenating blood during open heart surgery
a heart-lung machine is used during open heart surgery to correct septal defects
congenital malformation of the heart involving four distinct defects tetralogy of Fallot
tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary artery stenosis, ventricular septal defect, shift of aorta to right, hypertrophy of right ventricle
pulmonary artery stenosis artery is narrow/obstructed
shift of aorta to right overrides interventricular septum; oxygen-poor blood passes from right ventricle to aorta
hypertrophy of right ventricle myocardium works harder to pump blood through a narrowed pulmonary artery
includes patch closure of septal defect & removing obstruction to outflow at pulmonary artery surgery to correct tetralogy of Fallot
transposition of the great arteries pulmonary artery arises from left ventricle & aorta from right ventricle
congenital condition that causes cyanosis & hypoxia transposition of the great arteries
surgical correction of transposition of the great arteries is an artereal switch procedure
artereal switch procedure pulmonary artery & aorta reconnected in their proper positions
congestive heart failure(left side) blood accumulates in lungs causing fluid to seep out of capillaries into the tiny air sacs of the lungs
congestive heart failure(right side) damming back of blood results in accumulation of fluid in the abdominal organs (liver/spleen) & subcutaneous tissue of the legs
symptoms include SOB, fatigue & exercise intolerance congestive heart failure
the most common causes, in the US, are high blood pressure & coronary artery disease CHF
CHF therapy includes low dietary intake of sodium & diuretics
the most common drugs used to treat CHF include digoxin, ACE inhibitors & beta-blockers; they improve the performance of heart & its pumping activity
ACE inhibtors, beta-blockers & newer angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) decrease pressure inside blood vessels to treat hypertension
if drug thearpy & lifestyle changes fail to control CHF then the only other treatment option is heart transplantation
coronary artery disease is the result of artherosclerosis; deposit of fatty compounds on inner lining of coronary arteries smooth lining becomes rough as the plaque collects
plaque causes plugging, then roughened lining of artery may rupture or cause clotting of blood; this may lead to thrombotic occlusion and necrosis of a part of the myocardium
the sequence of events included in CAD consitute myocardial infarction
acute coronary syndromes are conditions caused by myocardial ischemia
acute coronary syndromes include unstable angina & myocardial infarction
ACS patients benefit from early angiography & angioplasty
drugs used to treat ACS are anticoagulants & antiplatelet agents
antiplatelet agent asprin & clopidogrel (Plavix)
nitroglycerin is given sublingually for acute attacks of angina
drugs used to prevent CAD & ACS are asprin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, & statins
cardiac surgeons use this type of surgery to treat CAD by replacing clogged vessels is coronary artery bypass grafting
interventional cardiologists perform this procedure to open clogged arteries percutaneous coronary intervention
bacterial endocarditis inflammation of inner lining of heart caused by bacteria
when vegetations break off into bloodstream as embolisms, they can lodge in other vessels causing transient ischemic attack
antibiotics can cure bacterial endocarditis
hypertensive heart disease results from narrowing of arterioles, leading to increased pressure in arteries; heart is effected because it must pump more vigorously to overcome resistance in arteries
mitral valve prolapse occurs because the mitral valve enlarged & prolapses into the left ____ during systole atrium
beacuse MVP patients are more disposed to infection of the prolapsed valves this medication is recomended at time of dental procedures preventative antibiotics
caused by valvular defect/disease disrupting the smooth flow of blood in the heart murmur
murmurs and interseptal defects can be heard with a(n) stethoscope
functional murmurs are not caused by valve/septal defects & do not seriously endanger a patient's health
a thrill often accompanies a(n) murmur
in most cases this is a result of disease elsewhere in the body, caused by bacteria/viruses, or etiology may be idiopathic pericarditis
pericarditis is marked by malaise, fever, chest pain and during auscultation a pericardial friction rub may be revealed
pericarditis can cause cardiac tamponade due to compression of heart caused by collection of blood in the pericardial cavity
treatment of cardiac tamponade include anti-inflammatory drugs & agents to manage pain
depending on microorganisms detected in specimens collected via pericardiocentesis, infective pericarditis is treated with antibiotics/antifungals
follows after a stretococcal infection & can damage heart valves due to inflammation; may also cause vegetations so valves don't open/close normally rheumatic heart disease
rheumatic heart disease can weaken the myocardium causing atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis and CHF
treatment of rheumatic heart diease can include reduced activity, drugs, surgery & anticoagulant therapy
artificial & porcine valve implants have been used to replace deteriorated heart valves due to rheumatic heart disease
aneurysm comes from the Greek word aneurysma meaning widening
usually caused by artherosclerosis & hypertension, or congenital weakness in vessel wall aneurysm
aneurysms are common in the aorta but may also occur in peripheral vessels
treatment of aneurysms depends on vessel involved, site & health of patient
berry aneurysm rupture of small vessels in brain
treatment for berry aneurysm is occlusion of small vessel with small clips
aneurysms in larger vessels, as in the aorta, the aneurysm is resected & a synthetic graft is sewn within affected vessel
a less invasive procedure, as an alternate to surgery for an aneurysm is stent grafts being placed
anticoagulants such as heparin are used to prevent pulmonary emobli
most hypertension is essential hypertension with no identifiable cause
diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcuim channel blockers along with lifestyle/diet changes & stopping smoking can treat HTN
intermittent claudation absence of pain/discomfort in a leg at rest, but pain, tension & weakness after walking has begun
a sign of peripheral vascular disease is intermittent claudation
treatment for PVD includes exercise, avoiding nicotine, & controlling hypertension, hyperlipidemia & diabetes
surgical treatments for PVD include endarterectomy & bypass grafting
balloon angioplasty, atherectomy & stenting are percutaneous treatments for PVD
embolic protection devices parachute-like filters used to capture embolic debris during stening, in patient's with PVD
a condition characterized by intermittent attacks of ischemia that affects the arterioles in the skin Raynaud disease
Raynaud disease can be triggered by cold temps, emotional stress or cigarettes smoking; protecting body from cold & use of vasodilators are effective treatments
Raynaud's phenomenon similar condition of aretial insufficiency but secondary to arterial narrowing from other conditions
secondary conditions of Raynaud's phenomenon include atherosclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma
varicose veins are caused by damaged valves that fail to prevent backflow of blood, then collecting in veins which distend to many times their normal size
because of slow flow of blood in varicose veins & frequent injury to the vein, this may occur as well thrombosis
vericose veins near the anus hemorrhoids (piles)
sclerotherapy injections with sclerosing solution
sclerotherapy or lasar & pulsed-light treatments are used to seal off vericose veins
when treating vericose veins doctors use these methods less frequently surgical inverventions of vein stripping and ligation
supraventricular tachycardia rapid heart beats arising from atria and causing palpitations, SOB & dizziness
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome an abnormal ECG pattern often associated with paroxsymal tachycardia
heart block antrioventricular (AV) block
AV block occurs when there is a delay/interruption in conduction of electrical impulses between atria & ventricles
conduction delay or failure may happen intermittently or with such frequency that virtually no impulses reach the ventricles
atrial "flutter" type of dysrhythmia characterized by rapid, but regular, contractions of the atria or ventricles
In atrial flutter, the heart rate may average between 250 to 350 beats per minute
normally more than 100 beats per minute tachycardia
premature atrial contractions (PACs) occur earlier than expected in the heart's conduction sequence
originate outside of the sinoatrial node PACs
premature ventricular contraction (PVCs) an electrical impulse, arising from a place other than the SA node, causes ventricles to contract before the normal time
may cause uncomfortable chest sensations called palpitations some dysrhythmias, including PACs & PVCs
congenital heart disease refers to structural/functional abnormalities of the heart that are present from birth
coarctation of the aorta type of congenital abnormality characterizues by a narrowing of that artery
pulmonary edema is often a pink frothy liquid
aneurysms most commonly affect the aorta
a frequent cause of aortic aneuryms is artherosclerosis
mostly often x-ray detect this; however Electrocardiography, echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging may also be used to diagnose and assess the severity of aneurysms
true fusifirm abdominal aneurysm this type usually affects the entire circumference of an artery
true saccular aortic aneurysm a saclike aneurysm that affects just one side of the wall of an arter
dissecting aneurysm one caused by hemorrhage that makes a lengthwise split in the arterial wall, with a tear in the inner wall (intima) and an opening to the lumen of the vessel
true aneurysm one whose sac is formed by the arterial walls, at least one of which is unbroken, a spindle-shaped arterial aneurysm
most common site is the aorta, but may be found in other large vessels dissecting aneurysm
aneurysmectomy surgical excision of the aneurysm, often with application of a synthetic graft over the arterial defect
to treat larger artery aneurysms will usually require a(n) aneurysmectomy
may treated by clamping off the blood flow to the weakened portion of the vessel aneurysms in smaller arteries
leading cause of PVD artherosclerosis
PVD most often effects the femoral & popletial arteries
This is especially useful for coronary artery occlusions, aneurysms, and varicose veins: Duplex ultrasound diagnostic equipment
also known as arteriospastic disease Raynaud's phenomenon/disease
Raynaud's phenomenon/disease symptoms include episodes of alternating pallor and cyanosis, and numbness
exact etiology of Raynaud's is not know but contributing factors include: occupational related trauma & exposure to heavy metals
Vericose veins can be caused by pregnancy, obesity, heredity, illness & injury
uncomplicated cases of vericose veins can often be treated with elevation of legs & wearing elastic stockings