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Endocrine 818-2

Endocrine A&P Review

Sugar is an osmotic ___ diuretic, pulls water to it, pushes it out through the kidney
What is mannitol used for? reduce edema, esp. in the brain. Where goes sugar, so goes water.
Excess glucose binds to what kind of molecule? proteins
What binds to proteins during hyperglycemia? sugars
What is the effect of sugar binding to proteins during hyperglycemia? leads to blood vessel weakness, contributing to problems like annyurism
What effect does hyperglycemia have on white blood cells? paralyzes WBCs
What kinds of cells are paralyzed during hyperglycemia? WBCs
What kind of sugars are dietary sugars broken down into? 6 carbon monosaccharides
Why is it necessary to break down dietary sugars? so they can be transported across the intestinal wall
Which vein transports digested molecules to the liver? hepatic portal vein
What organ do nutrients go to immediately upon leaving the intestine? liver
What is the first pass effect? Liver filters out large amounts of oral medications
What is the function of insulin? enables glucose to enter the cell
Under what conditions can glucose enter the cell without insulin? exercise
How does exercise benefit hyperglycemia? enables uptake of glucose into the cell without insulin
In the presence of _____, glucose is converted into _____ for Krebs cycle for energy glucose, pyruvate
What does the body use for sugar if it has no insulin? glycogen from the liver
What has to happen to glycogen for it to be mobilized from the liver? broken into two smaller molecules
Hyperglycemia causes ____ diuresis, like salt osmotic
What is the byproduct of the breakdown of fatty acids? keatones
Why does a poorly controlled diabetic spill keatones? because they body is using fats exclusively for energy and cannot clear all the keatones fast enough
When the brain is affected by high or low blood sugars, what kinds of system changes can be seen? neurological symptoms
What does protein break down into when used for energy? glucose
What is the process of breakdown of the bodies proteins called? catabolism
Where are the adrenal glands located? on top of the kidneys
What kind of hormones are produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands? steroids, mostly mineralcorticoids for the most part
What are the names of the steroids produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands? aldosterone, corticosteroids, gonadocorticoids
What is the effect of aldosterone? retains sodium
What hormone retains sodium? aldosterone
Where are steroids produced? cortex of the adrenal glands
Where are aldosterone, corticosteroids and gonadocorticoids produced? adrenal glands
What hormones are produced in the medula of the adrenal glands? epinephrine and norepinephrine
Where are epinephrine and norepinephrine produced? medula of the adrenal glands
What is the function of corticosteroids? decrease inflammation
What is the name given to the corticosteroids based on function? stress hormones
Which hormones are the gonadocorticoids? estrogens and testosterones
What class of hormone are the estrogens and testosterones? gonadocorticoids
Which systems are primarily targeted by epi and norepi? cardiovascular and cardiac
Which hormones are produced by the adrenal medula? epinephrine and norepinephrine
Where are epinephrine and norepinephrine produced? adrenal medula
Thyroid hormone is composed largely of _____ Thyroxine
Thyroxine is produced by which gland and is part of which hormone? thyroid, thyroid hormone
What element is essential for the production of thyroid hormone? iodine
Iodine is necessary for the production of which hormone? thyroid
How does the body compensate for lack of iodine? causes thyroid gland to hypertrophy (goiter)
Parathyroid hormone regulates ____? serum calcium
Low calcium levels cause _____ irritabiility? nerve
What are symptoms of nerve irritability? twitchyness
What is the function of the thymus Development and training of immune cells
What gland is responsible for development and training of the immune cells? thymus
What hormones are secreted by the gastric mucosa? gastrin and pepsin to break down proteins and stimulate the GI tract.
What are the functions of gastrin and pepsin? to break down proteins and stimulate the GI tract.
Where are gastrin and pepsin secreted? gastric mucosa
What hormones are secreted by the small intestine mucosa? secretin and cholesysteokinin
Where are secretin and cholesysteokinin secreted? small intestine mucosa
What is the function of secretin? neutralizes pancreatic bicarbonates
What is the function of cholecystokinin? stimulate contraction of the gallbladder
What hormone neutralizes pancreatic bicarbonates? secretin
What hormone stimulates gallbladder contraction? cholecystokinin?
What hormone is produced by the heart? natriuretic hormone
Where is the natriuretic hormone produced? heart
What is the function of natriuretic hormone? excrete excess fluids
What hormone is produced by the placenta? chorionic gonadotropin
What is the function of chorionic gonadotropin? to maintain uterine lining for pregnancy
What is the primary mechanism of hormone control in the body? negative feedback loop
The concentration of hormones can be controlled by which three mechanisms? Rate of production, rate of delivery, rate of degradation
What hormone is produced by the hypothalamus to stimulate the thyroid gland thyroid releasing hormone stimulates production in the anterior pituitary of TSH
What is the name and source of the hormone that can stimulate TSH production? hypothalamus, thyroid releasing hormone
Created by: suec56