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Vascular Terms

USCSOM: Pathology: blood vessel disease terms

Allergic granulomatosis systemic vasculitis with prominent eosinophilia; young patients with asthma
Atherosclerotic aneurysm infrarenal abdominal aorta
Berry/congenital aneurysm in circle of Willis branches, high mortality
Type A Aortic dissection involves ascending arota; cardiac tamponade, high mortaility rate
Tybe B Aortic dissection not involving the ascending aorta
Dissecting aneurysm hematoma in the wall of the artery, splitting of the media
Angioplasty dilating of coronary artery by a balloon catheter
Angiosarcoma malignant neoplasm of vessels; mostly subcutaneous, soft tissues
hyaline arteriolosclerosis hyaline thickening, benign nephrosclerosis
hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis onion-skin appearance, accelerated hypertension, malignant nephrosclerosis
3 categories of arteriosclerosis Mnckeberg's arteriosclerosis, Arteriolosclerosis, Atherosclerosis
Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis medial calcific sclerosis; media of medium-sized aa, small muscular arteries; 'ring-like' calcifications
Arteriolosclerosis affects small arteries and arterioles; hylaine and hyperplastic; assoc with hypertension and DM
Atherosclerosis large and medium aa; disease of arterial intima
2 characteristic lesions of atherosclerosis fatty streaks, proliverative lesion or intimal cellular mass
Morphologic characteristic of fibrofatty plaque fibrous cap, grumous lipid core
Common site of plaque build-up bifurcations, carotid, renal, iliac
Highest geographic incidence of cardiovascular disease Finland, GB, N Europe, US, Canada
Atherosclerosis non-modifiable risk factors increasing age, male gender, family history
Atherosclerosis modifiable risk factors hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, inactivity
Ideal LDL:HDL ratio 4:1
Lipoprotein Lp(A) correlation between this lipoprotein and cardiovascular disease
Insudation/Infiltration Hypothesis hypothesis that components of atherosclerotic lesion are derived from blood constituents
Encrustation/Thrombogenic hypothesis hypothesis that plaques evolved from thrombi bound to the walls
Metabolic deficiency hypothesis hypothesis that accumulation of cholesterol esters in lysosomes in smooth muscle cause plaques
"Diet Heart Hypothesis" hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia (from food) causes vascular injury; mostly LDL
Vascular reaction to endothelial injury hypothesis hypothesis focusing on smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to injury; release of PDGF
Macrophage hypothesis hyp that macrophage is source of mitogen to induce smooth muscle cell proliferation; oxidized lipoproteins create lipid accumulation
Monoclonal hypothesis hp that virus or carcinogen responsible for plaques; herpes mRNA detected in plaques
3 most significant hemodynamic factors in atherogenesis pressure, turbulence, eddies
Homocystinuria high lvls of circulating homocysteine; develope extensive atheroma when young, does not involve coronary arteries; associated with low folate and vit B
Chlamydia pneumonia found in atherosclerotic plaques; ABs do not reduce atherosclerosis
False aneurysm damaged intima and media; only adventitia
Thrombophlebitis venous thrombosis associated with acute inflammation of the affected vein
Phlebothrombosis venous thrombosis not associated with inflammation
Varicose veins caused from increased venous pressure; pregnancy, obesity, thrombophlebitis; stasis dermatitis
Lymphangitis caused by bacteria (Strep A); red stripes running along an extremity
Lymphedema compromise of lymphatic drainage; causes include cervical cancer, filariasis, iatrogenic (mastectomy), Milroy's (congenital)
List benign vascular tumors spider telangiectasia, herediatry, hemorrhagic telangiectasia, hemangioma, glomangioma, cystic hygroma
spider telangiectasia dilated small vessel surrounded by radiating channels; assoc with hyperestrinism
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia Osler-Weber-Rendu syn; autosomal dominant, convolution of venules and capillaries of skin
Hemangioma malformation of larger vessels, most commmon tumor of infancy
Glomangioma painful, fingertips, toes, coccyx
Cystic hygroma cavernous lymphangioma; neck, axilla
Angiosarcomas vascular tumor of skin, muscle, breast, liver; assoc with vinyl chloride exposure or radiation
Kaposi's sarcoma malignant vascular tumor; associated with AIDS and herpes virus
Bacillary angiomatosis cuase by Bartonella hensalae; proliferation of small blood vessels in skin, lymph, viscera; assoc with HIV; antibiotics responder
Polyarteritis Nodosa immune complex producing vascular injury; assoc with hepatitis; small-medium arteries affected, steroid, cytotoxic chemo therapy
Temporal (Giant Cell) arteritis affects 60+, headache, tender arteries, visual disorders; elevated erthrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Thromboangiitis obliterans Buerger's Disease, occlusion of vessels due to hypersensitivity to tobacco; ischemia, pain, gangrene; Raynouds phenomenon
Kawasaki disease infants under 2; necrotizing arteritis w/ coronary artery, aneurysms; common in asia
Takayasu's arteritis pulseless disease; medium-large aa stenosis; involve aortic arch
Wegener granulomatosis characteristic lesions of respiratory tract and renal; serum ANCA - anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies
Mechanisms of primary (essential) hypertension renal retention of sodium; vasocostriction/hypertrophy
Endocrine disorders causing secondary hypertension primary aldosteronism (conn), acromegaly, Cushing's, Pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism
Characteristics of Malignant hypertension increased diastolic pressure, dot heme in retina, LV hypertrophy, LV failure
Raynaud's Disease IDIOPATHIC 'allergic to cold' vasoconstriction to extremities in response to cold/stress
Raynaud's Phenomenon associated with underlying diseases, i.e. scleroderma, lupus, arteriosclerosis, etc
Familial hypercholesterolemia autosomal dominant; defect in LDL receptors; increased cholesterol levels; early onset atherosclerosis
Created by: jlellerm