Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Medi Term Mod 10

Terms & Definitions

absence seizure minor form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness & loss of contact with enviroment; petit mal seizure
acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
afferent nerves carry nervous impulses toward the brain & spinal cord; sensory nerves
akinetic pertaining to loss/absence of voluntary movement
Alzheimer disease (AD) brain disorder marked by progressive, gradual mental deterioration (dementia) along with personality changes & impairment of daily functioning
amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord & brainstem; resulting in total body paralysis
analgesia absence of sensitivity to pain
anencephaly congenital condition of partial/complete absence of brain matter
anesthesia lack of feeling/sensation
aneurysm weakening of an arterial wall, which may lead to hemorrhage & cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
aphasia inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to cerebral cortex
apraxia inability to perform purposeful acts/manipulate objects
arachnoid membrane middle layer of meninges that surround the brain & spinal cord
astrocyte glial (neuroglial) cell that transports salts & water from capillaries
astrocytoma brain tumor composed of astrocytes (glial cells); most serious of these tumors is glioblastoma multiforme (Grades III & IV malignant brain tumor)
ataxia without coordination
aura peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms
autonomic nervous system nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands & internal organs
axon microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Bell palsy unilateral paralysis of the face caused by a disorder of the facial nerve
blood-brain barrier blood vessels that let certain sunstances enter brain tissue & keep other substance out
bradykinesia slow movement
brainstem lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
causalgia intensely unpleasant burning pain in a limb following damage to nerves
cell body part of the nerve cell (neuron) that contains the nucleus
central nervous system brain & spinal cord
cephalgia head pain; headache
cerebellar pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebellopontine pertaining to the cerebellum & pons
cerebellum part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements & maintains balance
cerebral angiography x-ray record of blood vessels in the brain after intravenous injection of contrast material
cerebral concussion temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of conciousness) after injury; usually clearing within 24 hours
cerebral contusion bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic disorder persists longer than 24 hours
cerebral cortex outer region of the cerebrum
cerebral hemorrhage bursting of an artery in the brain
cerebral palsy partial paralysis of muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen/blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy/in the perinatal period
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clear, watery fluid that circulates throughout the brain & spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid analysis samples of cerebrospinal fluid are examined for blood cells, tumor cells, bacteria & other substances
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) disruption of the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
cerebrum largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought & memory, among other functions
coma state of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused
comatose pertaining to a coma
computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional x-ray imaging of an organ (such as the brain/spinal cord) with/without contrast material
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to & from the brain
dementia mental decline & deterioration
demyelination desstruction of myelin on axons of nerves (as in multiple sclerosis)
dendrite microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell
dopamine neurotansmitter in the central nervous system; defifient in patients with Parkinson disease
doppler/ultrasound studies sound waves are used to detect blood flow in arteries within the brain & leading to the brain
dura mater thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain & spinal cord
dyskinesia impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements
dyslexia difficulty in reading, writing & learning
efferent nerves carry messages away from brain & spinal cord; motor nerves
electroencephalography (EEG) process of recording the electricity within the brain
embolus blood clot that is carried by the bloodstream from one area of the body to another, where it blocks a blood vessel
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
encephalopathy disease of the brain
ependymal cell neuroglia that line central canal of spinal cord & fluid-filled cavities within brain
epidural hematoma collection of blood located above the dura mater
epilepsy brain disorder marked by recurrent attacks/seizures of abnormal nervous impulses
gait manner of walking
ganglion collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous systeml; plural is ganglia
glial cell nerve cells that are supportive & connective in function; does not carry impulses
glioblastoma rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain
glioblastoma multiforme highly malignant brain tumor composed of glial cells (astrocytes)
gyrus sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum
hemiparesis slight paralysis of the right/left half of the body
hemiplegia paralysis of the right/left half of the body
herpes zoster (shingles) viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
HIV encephalopathy disease of the brain (dementia) caused by infection with the HIV virus, which causes AIDS
Huntington disease hereditary disorder affecting the cerebrum; involving abrupt, involuntary, jerking movements & mental deterioration in later stages
hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles (canals) of the brain
hypalgesia/hypalgia/hypoalgesia A decreased sense of pain.
hyperethesia An abnormal condition of increased sensitivity, particularly a painful reaction to normally painless touch stimuli.
hyperkinesis excessive movement
hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp, & secretions from pituitary gland
ictal event pertaining to a sudden/accute onset, of convulsion of an epileptic seizure
intrathecal pertaining to within the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain & spinal cord
leptomeningitis inflammation of the 2 thinner membranes (arachnoid & pia mater) surrounding the brain & spinal cord
lumbar puncture (LB) withdrawl of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space between 2 lumbar vertebrae; spinal tap
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnetic & radio waves create an image of an organ on three planes of the body; brain/spinal can be imaged to detect lesions
medulla oblongata lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat & size of blood vessels
meningeal pertaining to the meninges
meninges 3 membranes surrounding & protecting the brain/spinal cord
meningioma tumor (benign) of meninges
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
meningocele hernia of the meninges through a defect/space between vertebrae; a form of spina bifida cystica
microglial cell phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the cental nervous system
migraine severe headache, often unilateral, & sometimes accompanied by nasea & vomitting
motor nerves carry impulses from the brain & spinal cord to muscles
multiple sclerosis (MS) chronic neurologic disorder marked by destruction of the myelin sheath on the neuronal axons in the CNS & replacement by plauques of sclerotic tissue
myasthenia gravis (MG) autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
myelin sheath fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell
myelogram xray record (with contrast) of the spinal cord
myelomeningocele congenital hernia of the spinal cord & meninges through a defect/gap in the vertebral column; often associated with spina bifida
myoneural pertaining to muscle & nerve
narcolepsy sudden seizures of sleep
nerve macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses
neuralgia nerve pain
neurasthenia lack of strength in nerves; feeling of weakness & exhaustion
neuroglia supporting cells (strom) of the nervous system; glial cells
neuron nerve cell
neuropathy disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system
neurotransmitter chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell
occlusion blockage/obstruction
oligodendroglial cell glial (neuroglial) cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of a neuron
palliative relieving symptoms, but not curative
palsy paralysis
paraplegia paralysis of the lower part of the body & both legs
parasympathetic nerves involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions i.e.heart rate, breathing & muscles of GI tract
parenchyma essential, functioning cells of any organ
paresis slight paralysis
paresthesia abnormal nervous sensation occuring without apparent cause: i.e. tingling, numbness/prickling sensations
Parkinson disease degeneration of nerve cells that produce the naurotransmitter, dopamine, in the the brain; leads to tremors, weakness of muscles, & slowness of movement
peripheral nervous system nerves outside the brain & spinal cord: i.e. cranial, spinal & autonomic nerves
pia mater thin, delicate, innermost membrane of the meninges
plexus network of nerves outside of the central nervous system: i.e. brachial, cervical, lumbosacral plexuses
poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of spinal cord
polyneuritis inflammation involving a number of related neurons
pons part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla & rest of brain; connects upper/lower portions of brain
positon emission tomography (PET) computerized radiologic procedure using radioactive glucose/oxygen to image the metabolic activity of cells, such as brain cells
quadripelgia paralysis of all 4 limbs; both arms & legs
radiculitis inflammation of a spinal nerve root
radiculopathy disease of a spinal nerve root
receptor organ that receives nervous stimulation & passes it on to nerves that carry the stimulation to the brain/spinal cord: i.e. skin, ears, eyes & taste buds
sciatic nerve extends from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg and foot; sciatica is pain along the course of the nerve
sensory nerves carry messages to the brain & spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves
shingles viral illness that affects peripheral nerves, produces blisters & pain on the skin overlying the path peripheral nerves; herpes zoster
spina bifida congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts; sinal cord & meninges may herniate through vertebral gap
spinal nerves each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin
stereotatic radiosurgery use of a specialized instrument using 3D cooridantes to locate the operation site
stimulus agent of change (light/cound/touch) that evokes a response
stroma connective & supportive tissue of an organ
subdural hematoma collection of blood in space below the dura mater surrounding brain
sulcus depression/groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
sympathetic nerves autonomic nerves that activate responses in times of stress: i.e. heartbeat, respiration & blood pressure are affected
synapse space between nerve cells/between nerve cells & muscle & glandular cells
syncopal pertaining to syncope (fainting)
syncope fainting; temporary loss of conciousness
thalamic pertaining to the thalamus
thalamus main relay center of the brain; located in the central region/diencephalon of the brain
thrombosis abnormal condition of clot formation in a blood vessel
tic involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face
tonic-clonic seizure a major seizure affecting the brain in epilepsy; grand-mal seizure
Tourette syndrome neurologic disorder characterized by multiple facial and other body tics
transient ischemic attack fleeting episode of ischemia (holding back blood) in the brain
trideminal neuralglia flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve (5th cranial nerve); has branches to the eye, upper/lower jaw
vagal pertaining to the vagus nerve
vagas nerve 10th cranial nerve with branches to the chest & abdominal organs
ventricles of the brain fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) filled canals in the brain
spina bifida occulta vertebral defect covered with skin & effident only on x-ray/other imaging examination
senile plaques result of degenerating neurons in the cerebral cortex found during microscopic examination; found in AD
neurofibrillary tangles microscopic bundles of fibrils in cytoplasm of a neuron found in the cerebral cortex; found in AD
amyloid protein occuring in neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques & blood vessels in AD patients
postical events after seizures there may be neurological symptoms such a weakness
thymectomy method of treatment for MG; removal/excision of the thymus
dermatome skin innvervation by spinal cranial nerves
gliomas brain tumor of the glial cells
oligodendroglioma a neoplasm derived from and composed of oligodendroglia
ependymoma a tumor composed of differentiated cells of the ependyma; most are slow growing and benign, but a few are malignant
cerebral edema swelling of the brain caused by the accumulation of fluid in the brain substance
arteriovenous malformations an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain that usually forms before birth
dural sinuses channels within dura mater containg blood
subdural space area below dural membrane
DMDs disease modifying drugs
diplopia double vision
cartoid endarterectomy removal of artherosclerotic plaque along with the inner lining of the affected cartoid artery
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation technique using battery powered device to relieve acute/chronic pain
transient ischemic attack temporary interference with the blood supply to the brain
tissue plasminogen activator a clot-dissolving drug used as therapy for strokes
gamma knife high-energy radiation beam, used to treat deep/inaccessible intracranial brain tumors & abnormal blood vessel masses
somatic nervous system parts of peripheral nervous system that are concerned with the transmission of impulses to and from the nonvisceral components of the body, such as the skeletal muscles, bones, joints, ligaments, skin, and eye and ear.
another name for the voluntary vervous system is the somatic nervouse system
the cranial nerves carry signals to/from areas in the head & neck, and ____ & ____ cavities thoracic; abdominal
spinal nerves make ____ and ____ possible sensation; movement
the network of intersecting nerves that meet to form a single peripheral nerve, as they exit the spinal cord, is called a(n) plexus
the sympathetic nervous systems prepares the body to act during times of ____ stress
fight-or-flight response is a product of the sympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system _____ and _____ the body's resources. conserves; restores
Alarms within the body are triggered by strenuous exercise and strong emotions, such as fear and anger, for the sympathetic nervous system
the peripheral nervous system includes 31 pairs of these spinal nerves
this nervous system is composed of spinal and cranial nerves peripheral
another name for glial cells neuroglia
astrocyte, microglial cell, ependymal cells are all examples of glial cells
neurons are the parenchyma of the nervous system
first part of the nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse dendrites
Schwann cells cells that perform supporting and connecting functions in the peripheral nervous system
neurilemma outermost Schwann cells covering some axons
myelinated fiber when many Schwann cells surround an axon
Nodes of Ranvier indentations between adjecent Schwann cells; areas where axon not covered by myelin
this plays a critical role in regeneration of damaged axons neurilemma
the neurilemma is present on many of the peripheral nervous system axons but is not present on the axons of the central nervous system
repair of brain and spinal cord neurons is limited due the lack of _____ being present neurilemma
interneurons link sensory & motor nerves by transmitting signals between them
Impulse conduction begins when the receptors of our sensory neurons detect a change in the environment
Sensing a stimulus sets off complex _____ changes in the neuron chemical
impulse electrical disturbance that moves like a wave along the length of the cell
these chemicals bind to proteins on the membrance of the adjecent neuron, inducing an electrical impulse in that nerve cell neurotransmitters
epinephrine hormone produced by the adrenal medulla, that helps regulate the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system
one hormone that has been identified as a neurotransmitter epinephrine
serotonin a hormone and neurotransmitter found in many tissues; it has many physiologic properties, including inhibiting gastric secretion, stimulates smooth muscles, & produces vasoconstriction.
synaptic knob, synaptic cleft & plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron structures making up a synapse
synaptic knob tiny bulge at end of terminal branch, of a presynaptic neuron's axon
synaptic cleft space between the 2 neaurons of a synapse
postsynaptic membrane plasma membrance of the receiving dendrite
neurotransmitter molecules are released into synaptic cleft from the snyaptic knob vesicles
a postsynaptic neuron has ____ molecules embedded in it opposite each synaptic knob protein
these serve as receptors that bind the neurotransmitter proteins on the postsynaptic neuron
proteins on the postsynaptic neuron are ____ that bind the neurotransmitter and initiate an ____ in the postsynaptic membrane receptors; impulse
once the impulse has passed the neurotransmitter, activity for that impulse is rapidly terminated
termination of an impulse, after passing, occurs as a result of molecules _____ out of the synaptic cleft diffusing
sometimes the neurotransmitters are _____ due to action of specific _____, making the neurotransmitters inactive compounds metabolized; enzymes
when neurons cannot communicate, metabolize or complete self-repair they die
when neurons die they cause memory failure, personality changes & other interference in day-to-day tasks
reflex arc the circuit traveled by impulses producing a reflex action
sometimes calles a neuron pathway the route that a nerve impulse travels
specialized type of involuntary neuron pathway is called a(n) reflex arc
simple reflex arc involves only a sensory & motor neuron
"two-neuron arc" simple reflex arc
complex reflex arc involves sensory & motor neurons and interneurons
knee-jerk reflex is an example of a(n) simple reflex arc
integration center consists of one/more synapses in the central nervous system
monosynaptic two-neuron reflex
polysynaptic more than two neurons involoved in the reflex
How fast do nerve fibers, innervating the skeletal muscles, conduct impulses? 130 meters/second or 300 MPH
these nervous system cells retain their ability to reproduce throughout the course of a person's life Neuroglia
these nervous system cells are vulnerable to abnormalities of cell division, such as cancer Neuroglia
"star cells" refers to their star shaped extensions astrocytes
the largest and most numerous of the neuroglia astrocytes
attach to neurons and cappillaries in brain to them in proximity to one another astrocytes
small central nervous system cells; important when brain tissue becomes damaged microglia
normally staitionary; although they may migrates to damaged areas, enlarge and consume destructive microorgansims & cellular debris microglia
oilogdendrocytes help to hold nerve fibers together
produce myelin to form sheaths surrounding the brain & spinal cord oligodendrocytes
have hair-like processes/cilia that help the CSF to circulate ependyma
spinal cord long, cylindrical structure that extends from the medulla oblongata to the upper part of the lumbar region, just above the pelvis
The spinal cord is contained within the vertebral canal
The canal also contains the three _____ coverings of the spinal cord meningeal
meningeal coverings of spinal cord CSF, cushion of fatty tissue & blood vessels
total number of spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord 31
spinal nerves are named for the level of the _______ from which they emerge vertebral column
oval-shaped structure, with two deep grooves—front and back—that cause it to look like the letter H spinal cord
The inner section of the spinal cord consists of gray matter
interneurons & motor neurons are unmyelinated causing them to be gray
a large bundle of myelinated axons, surrounding the core of the spinal cord white matter
nerve tracts when a large bundle of nerves is divided into smaller bundles
In the spinal cord, sensory impulses travel to the brain along ascending nerve tracts
motor impulses are conducted from the brain on descending tracts
two major functions of spinal cord conduct impulses to & from brain and primary reflex center
epilepsy relies on a patient's description of frequency/type of seizures; however this diagnostic procedure may also be performed to help detect abnormal electrical discharges from the brain and to locate the specific area from which they originate electroencephalography
paraparesis partial paralysis, usually affecting only lower extremities
vagotomy procedure that involves cutting certain branches of the vagus nerve
asthenia term that means weakness/loss of strength
dysphagia a condition in which there is difficulty speaking; an impairment of speech
glioma intracranial tumor arising from the supportive/connective tissue of the brain
another term for tonic-clonic seizures is ictal events
rocephalus in order to relieve pressure, due to build up of CSF in brain, a shunt is placed from ventricle of brain into peritoneal space/right atrium of heart in order to drain CSF from brain
hydrocephalus can occur in adults as result of tumors/infections
spina bifida etiology is unknown; originates in early weeks of pregnancy; diagnosis helped by imaging methods & testing maternal blood for alpha-fetoprotein
Alzheimer’s disease sometimes begins in middle life with slight defects in memory/behavior, but worsens after 70+; no effective treatment yet
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presents in adulthood w/muscle atrophy in forearms, hands, legs, difficulty swallowing/talking and dyspnea develops; etiology & cure unknown; also known as Lou Gehrig's disease
epilepsy often symptoms of underlying brain pathologic conditions; Greeks thought that victims were laid hold by a mysterious force
Huntington disease typically presents between 35-45; genetic defect in patients located on chromosome 4; testing available but no known cure exists & management is symptomatic
multiple sclerosis chronic disease marked by long periods of stability & worsening; visual & speech disturbances, areas of scarred myelin can be seen on MRI scans of brain; etiology is unknown but probably autoimmune disease of lymphocytes reacting against myelin
multiple sclerosis DMDs can slow progression by preventing immune system from destroying myelin
myasthenia gravis chronic autoimmune disease, where antibodies block ability of acetylcholine to transmit nerve impulses from one nerve to muscle cell; onset usually gradual marked by ptosis of upper eyelid, diplopia, & facial weakness
myasthenia gravis therapy to reverse symptoms include anticholinersease drugs which inhibit the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine; corticosteroids & immunosuppressive drugs also used un treatment; sometimes thymectomy is also a beneficial treatment.
Cerebral & Bell palsy likely caused by viral infection; therapy directed against the virus with antiviral drugs and nerve swelling
Parkinson disease cause is unknown but the pathological process involves loss of neurons in midbrain & inadequate production of dopamine
Tourette syndrome usually begins with a twitching eyelid & muscles of the face; cause is unknown, but is associated with an excess of dopamine or hypersensitivity to dopamine; some success in treating with antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants & mood stabilizers
Herpes zoster reactivation of chickenpox virus, which remained in the body of the patient after the occurrence of chickenpox
meningitis caused by bacteria/viruses; fever, headache, photophobia, stiff neck are all symptoms; lumbar puncture to detect; treated with antibiotics/antivirals
brain tumors may be single or multiple metastic growths; most arise from ling, breast, skin, kidney and gastrointestinal tract spreading to the brain
thrombotic CVA blood clot in arteries leading to brain, resulting in blockage of the vessel; atherosclerosis leads to this common type of stroke; treated with anticoagulant drugs
embolic CVA this type of stroke occurs very suddenly
hemorrhagic CVA this type of stroke can be fatal and found mostly in those of advancing age, atherosclerosis or high blood pressure
major risk factors for a stroke hypertension, diabetes, smoking & heart disease
secondary risk factors for a stroke obesity, substance abuse & elevated cholesterol levels
tPA, tissue plasminogen activator usually started within 3 hours after onset of a stroke
CSF analysis measure water, glucose, sodium, chloride & protein, as well as the # of RBCs & WBCs; can detect tumor cells, bacteria & viruses; used to diagnose infection, tumors or MS
cerebral angiography used to diagnose vascular disease in the brain
CT of brain contrast material may be injected to highlight abnormalities; the contrast leaks through the blood-brain barrier from blood vessels into brain & shows tumors, hemorrhages & blood clots
myelography more invasive & being replaced by MRI & CT scans
MRI of the brain CT compliments this is diagnosing brain/spinal cord lesions; excellent for viewing stokes & tumors, or changes caused by trauma or AD
PET scan provides valuable info about function of brain tissue in patients with AD, stroke, schizophrenia & epilepsy
Doppler/ultrasound studies detect occlusion in blood vessels, like the cartoid artery
EEG demonstrates seizure activity resulting from tumors, other diseases & injury to brain
LP measure pressure of CSF; used to administer contrast material for myelography, intracathecal medicine; sometimes patients experience headaches after
stereotactic radiosurgery uses gamma knife to treat deep intracranial brain tumors & abnormal blood vessel masses without surgical incision
cause is unknown, however genetic factors may play role, mutation of chromosome 14 has been linked in familial cases AD - Alzheimer disease
part of the damaging effects are damage to neurons in the brain, disrupting the neurons' roles in communication within the system as well the roles in metabolism & self-repair AD - Alzheimer disease
damages oligodendrocytes preventing production of new myelin MS multiple sclerosis
affects the hippocampus deep within the cerebrum; plaques develop in the hippocampus, interfering with its ability to encode memories; plaques will then also develop in other areas of cerebral cortex, including those used in thinking & making decisions. AD - Alzheimer disease
cerebral aneurysm stroke; sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction
pyogenic meningitis caused by bacteria
aseptic or viral meningitis caused by viruses
Infecting agents enter the central nervous system through the bloodstream or as a consequence of an upper respiratory infection, causing acute inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid membrane meningitis
marked by a progressive loss of motor neurons; as the motor neurons become incapable of transmitting impulses, weakness of the skeletal muscles ensues ALS
genetically transmitted degenerative disorder caused by a deficiency in specific neurotransmitters produced in the midbrain Huntington's disease
most well-known symptom being tremor; other signs include a shuffling gait, a mask-like facial expression, muscle weakness and rigidity, slow movement, and a stooped posture Parkinson's disease
Treatment of this disorder seeks to provide symptom relief and includes administration of the drug levodopa, a precursor of dopamine capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier Parkinson's disease
involves paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve—a nerve concerned with facial movement and the sensation of taste Bell's Palsy
Atrophy of the cerebral cortex with narrowing of the gyri and widening of the sulci are among the structural changes associated with AD - Alzheimer disease
group of disorders, all of which involve an abnormal discharge of electrical activity from the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex epilepsy
involve generalized—sometimes violent—involuntary muscle contractions that often alternate with rigidity. They are accompanied by a loss of consciousness, labored breathing, tongue biting, and loss of bowel or bladder control tonic-clonic seizures
petit mal absence seizures characterized by momentary alterations in consciousness
two interferon compounds have been shown to help reduce the number of neurologic attacks and slow the progress of physical disability MS
a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain, with no apparent damage to brain tissue; minor head injury concussion
a type of major head injury—the bruising of brain tissue—caused by movement of the brain inside the skull following blunt trauma contusion
cerebral infarction Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), also known as stroke
the formation of a clot or the accumulation of hardened fatty deposits within a blood vessel—is the most frequent cause of stroke thrombosis
the second most common cause of stroke, involves the movement of a clot from a site outside the brain, through the bloodstream, to the neurovasculature embolism
The third cause of stroke, involves bleeding within the brain from a ruptured cerebral blood vessel hemorrhage
manifestations of stroke depend on the location and size of the area in the brain that has been affected and the rate of onset of the stroke
paralyzes left side, left sided neglect, spatial-perceptual deficits, tends to deny/minimize problems, rapid performance/short attention span, impulsive/safety problems, impaired judgment, impaired time concepts right brain damage from stroke on right side of brain
paralyzed right side, impaired speech/language aphasis, impaired right/left discrimination, slow performance/cautious, impaired speech/language, aware of deficits/depression/anxiety, impaired comprehension related to language/math left brain damage from stroke on left side of brain
a computerized imaging technique that shows the chemical activity of the brain, offers excellent visualization of the extent of tissue damage following a stroke PET Scan
cerebrum thinking, personality, sensations, movements, memory
thalamus relay station for sensory impulses
hypothalamus body temp, sleep appetite, emotions, control of pituitary gland
cerebellum coordinate voluntary movements & execute then smoothly; balance & posture
pons connection of nerves, to the eyes & face
medulla oblongata nerve fibers cross over, left to right & right to left; contains centers to regulate heart, blood vessels & respiratory system
cranial nerve I Olfactory - smell; sensory nerve to the brain
cranial nerve II Optic - vision; sensory nerve to the brain
cranial nerve III Oculomotor - eye movement; brain to the motor nerve
cranial nerve IV Trochlear - eye movement; brain to the motor nerve
cranial nerve V Trigeminal - forehead & scalp sensations, cheek sensations, chewing; brain to the motor nerve & sensory nerve to the brain
cranial nerve VI Abducens - eye movement; brain to the motor nerve; brain to the motor nerve
cranial nerve VII Facial - face & scalp movement, taste, ear sensations; brain to the motor nerve & sensory nerve to the brain
cranial nerve IX Glossopharyngeal - tongue & throat sensations, throat movement; brain to the motor nerve & sensory nerve to the brain
cranial nerve X Vagus - peristalsis, blood pressure, heart rate, coughing, sneezing; brain to the motor nerve & sensory nerve to the brain
cranial nerve XI Accessory - swallowing, head & shoulder movements; brain to the motor nerve
cranial nerve XII Hypoglossal - speech, swallowing; brain to the motor nerve & sensory nerve to the brain
cranial nerve VIII Vestibulocochlear - hearing, balance; sensory nerve to the brain
frontal lobe language & general sensory functions - left hemisphere
parietal lobe body sensations, visual/spatial perception - left hemisphere
occipital lobe visual images are register, visual associative areas/interpretation of images - left hemisphere
Wernickle area language comprehension - left hemisphere
Broca area language expression - left hemisphere
left hemisphere more concerned with language, mathematical functioning, reasoning & analytical thinking
right hemisphere more concerned with spacial relationships, art, emotions & intuition
basal ganglia inferior to corpus callosum; regulate intentional movements of the body
corpus callosum lies in center of brain; connecting the two hemispheres by a band of nerves at the base of the fissure
respiratory center found in medulla oblongata; controls muscles in response to chemical/other stimuli
cardiac center found in medulla oblongata; slows the heart rate when the heart is beating too rapidly
vasomotor center found in medulla oblongata; affects (constricts/dilates) muscles in walls of blood vessels, influencing blood pressure
dorsal root of spinal nerve afferent - sensory
ventral root of spinal nerve efferent - motor
dura mater 1st membrane of meninges; thick, tough membrane which contains channels that contain blood
arachnoid membrane 2nd membrane of meninges; surrounds brain/spinal cord
subdural space below dural membrane
subarachnoid space loosely attached to other meninges by fibers, so that there is space for fluid between the fibers & the membrane
Pia mater 3rd membrane of meninges; contains delicate connective tissue w/rich supply of blood vessels
sulci depression/grooves in the cerebral cortex
deepest sulci are called fissures
divides the cerebrum into right & left halves/hemispheres fissure
largest lobes responsible for voluntary control over most of the skeletal muscles frontal lobe
temporal lobe is found in the cerebrum's lateral region
lobe involved with functions of hearing, taste, small & balance; associated areas for memory & learning temporal lobe
lies behind frontal lobe and above temporal lobe parietal lobe
occupies relatively small, pyramid-shaped areas at posterior of cerebrum occipital lobe
2nd largest part of brain, lying under occipital lobe of cerebrum cerebellum
lies under the cerebrum, is a small portion of brain, containing thalamus & hypothalamus diencephalon
directs impulses to the cerebral cortex thalamus
help to associate sensations with emotion, helping us recognize a sensory experience as pleasant/painful thalamus
lies inferior to thalamus; exerts control over virtually all internal organs hypothalamus
involved in the experience and expressions of many emotions hypothalamus
body's "internal clock" resides in the hypothalamus
medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain are all part of the brainstem
lowest part of the brain stem, really an upward extension of the spinal cord medulla oblongata (medulla)
"bridge", lies between medulla & midbrain pons
uppermost portion of the brainstem midbrain
reflex centers for certain cranial nerves reflexes pons & midbrain
cushions vital nervous system structures CSF
AD Alzheimer disease
AFP alpha-fetoprotein
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
AVM arteriovenous malformation
CNS central nervous system
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CT computed tomography
CVA cerebrovascular accident
EEG electroencephalography
GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid (neurotransmitter)
ICP intracranial pressure (normal is 5 to 15 mm Hg)
LP lumbar puncture
MAC monitored anesthetic care
MG myasthenia gravis
MRA magnetic resonance angiography
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS multiple sclerosis
1/2P hemiparesia
PET positron emission tomography
PSRS proton stereotatic radiosurgery
Sz seizure
TBI traumatic brain injury
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TIA transient ischemic attach
tPA tissue plasminogen activator
there are 12 pairs of cranial & 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the peripheral nervous system
the only cranial nerve to leave the head/neck region vagus nerve
after exiting spinal cord, spinal nerves intersect forming a single peripheral network called a plexus
somatic nervous system controls voluntary activities
autonomic nervous system controls involuntary activities
cranial nerves carry signals to/from structures of head/neck and thoracic & abdominal cavities
make sensation & movement possible spinal nerves
spinal nerve designation is based on the level of vertebrae of the spinal cord i.e. T4
prepares body for muscle work an emergnecy may require sympathetic nervous system
sends signals to protect, conserve & restore body's resources parasympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system counteracts the sympathetic nervous system
nervous system composed of spinal & cranial nerves peripheral NS
nerves are the ___ of the nervous system parenchymal tissue
outer cell membrane of a Schwamm cell is called neurilemma
interneurons link sensory & motor nerves by transmitting signals between them
animpulse travels along the ___ of a neuron axon
do not carry nerve impulses, rather provide structural support & protection neuroglia
wrap around capillaries to form, with capillary wall, the blood-brain barrier astrocytes
astrocytes attach to neurons & capillaries, holding structures in proximity to one another in the brain
microglia small CNS cells usually stationary, but may migrate to damaged areas
produce myelin sheaths that surround the brain & spinal cord oligodendrocytes
involved in production of cerebrospinal fluid ependyma
ependyma have cilia that helps fluid to circulate
sensory nerves are also called afferent nerves
stimulus creates wave of excitability beginning at which part of neuron? the dendrite
AD affects brain neurons, as well as development of plaque in the hippocampus
"internal clock" resides in the hypothalamus
spinal cord is contained within the vertebral canal
unmyelinated cell bodies & dendrites give gray matter its color
protect both spinal cord & brain meningeal coverings
one way to test for cerebral aneurysm is to examine sample of cerbrospinal fluid
fluid accumulation in/around brain; may be congenital/later onset hydrocephalus
infants born with hydrocephalus need to have a ___ surgically inserted to relieve pressure shunt
spina bifida occulta milder form of disorder, incomplete closure of spinal cavity but no protruction through opening
meninges may push through defective closure creating a myelomeningocele spina bifida cystica
spina bifida cystica may result in other neurological deficits, & associated with hydrocephalus
in more severe forms surgery may be necessary to remove herniated tissue spina bifida
diagnosis of meningitis is usually confirmed by CSF analysis through a lumbar puncture
fluid withdrawn by inserting needle into spinal cavity lumbar puncture
treament of meningitis includes antibiotic medications
shingles affects the peripheral nerves
in shingles the painful eruptions follow the path of spinal/cranial nerves
antiviral medication, antipruritics & pain medications are treatments for shingles
radiculitis disorder which nerve root of spinal nerve becomes inflammed
often a result of radiculitis polyneuritis & loss of function of that nerve
polyneuritis inflammation involving a number of related neurons
inflammatory disorders result from infections, chronic diseases (diabetes, gout, arthritis, SLE), or vitamin deficiencies
primary tumors of brain arise from within the brain tissue
secondary tumors of brain result of cencerous cells spreading from other sites in the body
most primary brain tumors form from the meninges or neurglia
most malignant & rapidly growing form of gliona is glioblastoma multiforme
glioblastoma multiforme is composed of immature neuroglia
used to detect both brain tumors & ischemic/hemorrahagic strokes CT &/or MRI
MRI is especially useful in detection of small tumors
cerebral cortex atrophy, gyri narrowing & sulci widening structural changes associated with AD
medications designed to prevent breakdown of neurotransmitters may provide AD symptom relief
involve abnormal discharge of electrical activity from nerve cells of cerebral cortex epilepsy
used to diagnose seizure disorders electroencephalography