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VCOM Micro 19 - 10/9

Block 1 - Micro 19 - Viral Cases - 10/9/2009

What type of genome does Smallpox have? Double stranded DNA
How long is the incubation period for Smallpox (variola major) 7 to 17 days
What symptoms do people infected with Smallpox (variola major) typically present with? high fever, malaise, vomiting, headache, backache, and severe abdominal pain. characteristic lesions appear and progress from macules -> papules -> pustules -> scabs over the course of 8 days
What is the incubation period for Human monkeypox? 7 to 19 days
What differs between the small pox rash and the monkeypox rash? The monkeypox rash is centrifugal and causes lympadenopathy (swollen/enlarged lymph nodes)
How long is the incubation period for Chickenpox? 10 to 21 days
How is Chickenpox spread? through coughs or sneezes of ill individuals, or through direct contact with secretions from the rash.
What virus causes chickenpox? Varicella zoster virus
What can chickenpox manifest in people years after primary infection during periods of stress or immune compromise shinges
How long is an individual with chickenpox contagious? From 1-5 days prior to the appearance of the rash till the blisters have formed scabs (this may take 5-10 days).
How long can a person maintain the varicella-zoster virus for their lifetime
Is Shingles contagious? Yes, shingles is contagious. Shingles can be spread from an affected person to children or adults who have not had chickenpox
What are the common forms of transmission shared by both chickenpox and smallpox direct contact and respiratory droplets
Who is at risk for diseases caused by varicella-zoster Those who have not been infected by it, and are in a population of potential exposure (younger children) Also, those who have had chickenpox and are stressed or immune compromised, potentially resulting in Shingles (elderly)
Where are varicella-zoster and variola major viruses found worldwide
Is there any seasonality to small pox or chicken pox? no
How are chicken pox and small pox controled? Live vaccine Immunization
When attempting to diagnosis a clinical case of either chicken pox or small pox when immunity is not established, what precautions should be taken? Wear gloves, a gown, and a personal respirator
What is the most common sexually transmitted infection? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV)
What are some of the symptoms of HPV? genital warts to various forms of cancer (cervical cancer, and vulva, vagina, anus, and penis cancer)
What percent of the sexually active population will be infected with HPV? 50%
What is the age range and frequency for performing a Papanicolaou (Pap) test in females? From when they are sexually active till the age 65. Testing at least every 3 years.
In what percent of cases does the body's immune system clear the HPV infection two years out from the intial infection? 90%
What organs and tissues do Papillomaviruses replicate in? Epithelial cells of the skin and mucous membranes
How is the HPV virus acquired? Fomite, direct contact, sexually, breaks in the skin
Is HPV gender specific? No
What are the clinical manifestations of HPV? Warts/outgrowth of cells in the effected region
How does a patient with HPV develop cancer because of the infection Chronic progressive cellular changes from mild neoplasia to severe and carcinoma
How does HPV present in the male patient? Genital warts, anal cancer, penile cancer
What is the population approved for the HPV vaccine? girls/women ages 9-26
What are four common causes of infectious diarrheas? Bacteria, Bacterial toxins, Parasites, Viruses
What viruses cause Diarrhea? Coxsackieviruses A and B Echoviruses Rotavirus Calciviruses (Norwalk, Sapporo-like calcivirus) Adenovirus Astrovirus Coronavirus
What is the most common cause of Traveler's diarrhea Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of Traveler's diarrhea
What are the symptoms of the Norwalk virus gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps and occasionally fever
How long do the symptoms of the Norwalk virus typically last? 24-48 hours
What is the primary route of transmission for the Noroviruses? person-to-person spread via the fecal-oral route or through contaminated food or water. It is the most common cause of food borne illness
How long is the incubation period for the calicivirus (including norovirus and sapovirus)? typically 24-48 hours
When is the noroviruses typically contagious? With, or just before, the onset of symptoms. Noroviruses are highly contagious
What cells in the body can become infected with Norwalk Virus GI Epithelium
What are the characteristic symptoms of viral influenza (flu) sudden onset of fever (>100 F) and malaise, followed by cough, headache, myalgia, and nasal and pulmonary symptoms (including sore throat, and/or rhinorrhea)
What is rhinorrhea? commonly referred to as runny nose, consists of an unusually significant amount of nasal fluid
What is myalgia? "muscle pain"
What is the best way to prevent the flu? Receiving a flu vaccination each year
Approximately how many people die from flu-related causes each year? 36,000
What complications can arise as a result of the flu? bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, dehydration, and worsening of chronic medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, asthma, or diabetes.
When are individuals infected with the flu contagious? 1 day prior to symptoms to 5 days after becoming sick
How is the the flue spread? mainly person to person via coughing or respiratory droplets
What population should not receive the flu vaccine? People who have a severe allergy to chicken eggs. People who developed Guillian-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks of getting an influenza vaccine. Children less than 6 months of age People who have a moderate illness and a fever should wait
What is the common name of the H5N1 virus? Avian Flu
How long should an individual infected with H1N1 (swine flue) stay in isolation? 7 days after your symptoms begin or until you have been symptom-free for 24 hours, whichever is longer
What is dyspnea? Shortness Of Breath (SOB)
What are the at risk populations for influenza A and B? Elderly, immunocompromised, asthma, smokers, underlying cardiac or respiratory
Does seasonality impact the transmission of Influenza A and B? Yes, Winters when people are more likely to be indoors and have their immune systems weakened due to the cold.
What laboratory tests are indicated to detect the presence of influenza in a patient? CDC has developed a PCR diagnostic test kit to detect this novel H1N1 virus
Created by: nladd