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Population & Culture

Chapter 4, Section 1 & 2 World Geography Test

culture the total knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group; a group's way of life
dialect versions of a language; reflects changes in speech patterns realated to class, region, or other cultural changes
fertility rate average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime
cultural trait single elements of normal practice in culture (includes beliefs, institutions, language, technology)
examples of cultural traits silence, private space, touching, hand gestures, eye contact, greetings, perceptions of time, gift giving
language group have common origins and shares similar grammar and vocabulary
examples of language group Romance branch of Indo-European languages - Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Catalan
lingua franca type of language that's the 3rd language adopted by people from different language groups who cannot speak each other's language
lingua franca language of international trade
dominant linguas francas English, Spanish, Chinese
Why is English a dominant lingua franca? British colonial empire
infant mortality rate number of deaths among infants under the age of 1 per 1000 live births
cultural landscape the distinct imprint of a culture on the land
cultural hearth region where cultural traits such as religion and agriculture develop; site of innovation from which ideas diffuse to many cultures
language family related to their prehistoric origin
example of a language family Indo-European
demographic momentum the phenomenon of continued population increase despite reduced reproductive rates beacuse a large portion of the population is growing into the reproductive years
pop culture arts, entertainment, fads, beliefs and vaulues shared by large segments of society
folk culture traditional practices of small groups, especially rural people with simple lifestyles
pidgin simplified version of a language; used for informal changes between cultures who don't know each other's language
doubling time the time it takes for a population to double
cultural realm group of culture regions that share a common culture system
creole occurs when pidgin is used enough to become a primary language
example of creole Swahili in East Africa
push factor causes people to migrate
examples of push factors environmental conditions, natural disasters, droughts, war, persecution
society a group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture
language group have common origins and share similar grammar and vocabulary
example of a language group romance branch of the Indo-European languages (Spanish, French, Poruguese, Italian, Catalan)
pull factor draw and attract people to places
examples of pull factors good economic opportunities, high salaries, favorable climate
diffusion spread of ideas, inventions, and patterns of behavior
standard English accepted form of English with proper syntax, pronunciation, and vocabulary
innovation the use of existing technology to create something new to meet a need
transculturation occurs when 2 strong cultures come together and create a blended culture (neither dominates)
possibilism the idea that people is the major factor affecting culture
polytheistic belief in many gods
acculturation occurs when a society changes as it comes into contact with a dominnat culture
universalizing religion a religion that seeks converts
examples of universalizing religions Christianity, Buddhism, Islam
monotheistic belief in one god
Buddhism taken to East Asia along trade routes; monotheistic
Where is Buddhism practiced today? East Asia, Japan, Southeast Asia, China, Japan, Korea
Where was Buddhism originated? South Asia (India)
Christianity spread to Eruope when adopted as official religion of the Romans, taken to European colonies during colonial rule; grew out of Judaism; monotheistic
Where is Christianity practiced today? all the continents
Hinduism has not spread outside South Asia in great numbers, British rule relocated many who took it with them; polytheistic
Where was Hinduism originated? South Asia (India)
Where is Hinduism practiced today? India (mostly)
Islam early spread by conquest, later spread through trade and seeking converts; monotheistic
Where is Islam practiced today? Africa, Central, South, and East Asia, and parts of the Balkans in Europe
Where was Islam originated? Southwest Asia
Judaism diaspora took place in 1st century, return to Israel in 20th century; monotheistic
Where was Judaism originated? Israel (Southwest Asia)
Where is Judaism practiced today? Israel, US, Canada, South America, some European cities
What is the 1st stage of the DTM? rural/agrarian; birthrate and death rate are high, population grows slowly
What are some facts for the 1st stage of DTM? little access to birth control, high infant mortality rate, state of equilibrium, machismo factor, high death rates among children, no longer found in any country
What is the 2nd stage of the DTM? less DC; death rate drops and birth rate remains high (rapid increase in population)
What are some facts for the 2nd stage of DTM? improvements in medical care, sanitation, water supply, quality and quanitity of food rises (better transport), decrease in infant mortality rate
What is the 3rd stage of the DTM? more DC; birth rates decline, population growth is less rapid
What are some facts for the 3rd stage of DTM? increased access to contraception, lower infant mortality rate leads to smaller family size, children become economic liablity (women follow career path), small family = improved quality of life
What is the 4th stage of the DTM? urban/industrial; birthrates and death rates are both low, low rate of natural increase or even a decrease if death rates should exceed those of births
What are some facts for the 4th stage of DTM? found in more developed countries, state of equilibrium (at lower levels)
How does language change? can occur slowly, can occur with new contact with outside groups, can occur when new technologies call for new words;ie: slang, language of text messaging
What region of the world is experiencing the fastest population growth? Africa
What is the approximate world population? 6,706,993,152
What might cause a woman to limit the number of children she will have? birth control, education, work, cost of having a large family
What caused a rapid increase in the population in the mid-1800s? medicine, Green Revolution, vaccinations, advances in food production, water supply, sanitation, transportation, etc.
What are the advantages for countries to send their migrants to other countries? benefit from remittances (boosts economy), bring greater amounts of training and experienc contributing to the social capital
What are the disadvantages for countries to send their migrants to other countries? loss of trained and educated individuals to emigration ("brain drain"), lose money because of this,
What are the advantages for countries receiving migrants? cheap and eager labor, fill low-wage jobs, (UK) contributed 10% more to public finances than they took out,
What are the disadvantages for countries receiving migrants? decrease in domestic wages, add to public welfare burden, use social services twice the rate of native-born Americans, reduce wages (for native workers) to attract foreign workers,
Why do women in less developed countries have more children than those who live in developed countries? uneducated, machismo factor, traditional role, no work, had more children because they expected some to die, had someone to care for you in old age
Created by: Tiffanyy