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Medi Term Mid term

Mod 1-9 (mixed) All terms & definitions_5

appendectomy removal or excision of appendix
appendicitis inflammation of appendix
appendix small, slender sac near the beginning of colon in the RLQ of abdomen
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in abdomen
bile yellow-organ fluid produced by liver in gallbladder; travels from gallbladder into small intestines to help digest fats
biliary pertaining to bile-bile ducts; bile ducts empty into small intestines
bilirubin yellow-orange pigment found in bile
borborygmus rumbling-gurgling noise produced by hyperactive movement of gas
bowel intestine; large bowel called colon & small bowel is small intestine
buccal mucosa mucous membrane in lining of cheek
canine teeth four, pointed dog-like teeth; each canine-cusped tooth is 3rd from midline of jaw
cecal pertaining to cecum, which is 1st part of large intestine
cecum 1st part of large intestine (colon)
celiac pertaining to abdomen
cheilitis inflammation of hip
cholecystectomy excision-removal of gallbladder
choledochojejunostomy surgical anastomosis (create new opening) between common bile duct & jejunum
choledocholithiasis abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct
choledochotomy incision of common bile duct
cholelithiasis abnormal condition of gallstones
cirrhosis chronic, degenerative disease of the liver
colon large intestine (bowel)
colonic pertaining to the colon
colonic polyposis benign growths protrude from the mucous membrane lining in colon
colonoscopy visual endoscopic examination of the colon
colorectal cancer adenocarcinoma of colon-rectum-both
colostomy new opening of colon through the abdominal wall to the outside of body
common bile duct tube carrying from gallbladder & liver into first part of small intestine
constipation difficulty in passing feces
Crohn's disease inflammatory bowel disease marked by diarrhea, pain, fever, weakness & weight loss
defecation eliminating of wastes & undigested foods through rectum
deglutition swelling
dental caries tooth decay
dentibuccal pertaining to cheek & teeth
dentin chief substance of teeth; surrounding pulp & covered by enamel of crown
diarrhea frequent passage of loose-watery stools
digestion process of breaking down complex foods into simpler substance that can be absorbed into bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine
diverticula small, pouch-like herniations through muscular wall of tubular organ such as colon
diverticulitis inflammation of diverticula; abdominal pain & rectal bleeding symptoms
diverticulosis abnormal condition of diverticula without inflammation
duodenal pertaining to the duodenum
duodenum 1st part of small intestine
dysentery painful intestines; marked by inflammation & infection, especially of colon with abdominal pain & diarrhea
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
elimination discharge from body of indigestible materials-wastes
emulsification breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, digestible particles
enamel white, compact-hard substance covering the substance (dentin) of the crown of tooth
endodontist dentist specializing in inner parts of tooth
enterocolitis inflammation of small intestine & colon
enterocolostomy new surgical connection between parts of small intestine & colon; anastomosis
enzyme protein that speeds up rate of the biochemical reaction; suffix -ase means enzyme
eructation gas expelled from stomach through mouth
esophageal pertaining to esophagus
esophageal varices swollen, twisted veins at lower end of esophagus
esophagus tube that carries food from pharynx to stomach
etiology study of cause of disease
facial pertaining to the face
fatty acids substances that are produced when fats are digested; they combine with glycerol to form fat
feces solid wastes; stools
flatus gas expelled through the anus
gallbladder small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored
gastric carcinoma malignant tumor of stomach; stomach cancer
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow of solids & fluid from the stomach to the mouth against its normal direction of movement
gastrointestinal tract tubular system related to stomach & intestines beginning with mouth & ending at anus
gastrojejunostomy new surgical opening between the stomach & jejunum; anastomosis; part of gastric bypass surgery
gastrostomy new opening of stomach through abdominal wall to outside of body
gingivitis inflammation of gums
gluconeogenesis process of producing new sugar from fats & proteins; occurs mainly in liver
glucose simple sugar necessary as source of energy for body cells
glycogen storage form of glucose; produces glucose when it is broken down in liver cells
glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen to release sugar
hematochezia passage of bright red blood from the rectum
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region
hepatoma tumor of liver cells; hepatocellular carcinoma
hepatomegaly enlargement of liver
herpetic stomatitis inflammation of mouth caused by infection with herpes virus. painful, fluid-filled blisters produced by infection & known as cold sores-fever blisters
hiatal hernia protrusion of upper portion of stomach upward through diaphragm
hydrochloric acid strong acid, present in a dilute form in stomach; aids digestion
hyperbilirubinemia high levels of bilirubin in bloodstream; jaundice
hyperglycemia high levels of sugar in bloodstream; diabetes mellitus
hypoglossal pertaining to under the tongue
icterus jaundice; yellow-orange coloration of skin & whites of eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood
idiopathic pertaining to unknown cause of disease
ileitis inflammation of ileum
ileocecal sphincter ring of muscles between the ileum & cecum
ileostomy surgical formation of an artificial opening from the ileum to outside of body through abdominal wall
ileum 3rd (final) portion of the small intestine
ileus failure of peristalsis with obstruction of intestines
incisor 1 of 4 front teeth on either jaw
inflammatory bowel disease severe inflammation of small-large intestine (colon); i.e. Crohn’s disease & ulcerative colitis
inguinal hernia small loop of bowel protrudes through a weakened lower abdominal muscle
insulin hormone secreted by specialized cells in pancreas; facilitates transport of sugar from blood into body cells
intussusception one portion of intestine slips into adjoining part; telescoping of intestine