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Electric and Machine

Esthetics chs 7 and 15

Electricity a form of energy that in motion has magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects; a flow of electrons
Electric current the flow of electricity along a conductor
Conductor any substance that transmits electricity
Nonconductor insulator
Insulator any substance that does not easily transmit electricity
Conductor example copper
Insulator example rubber or silk
Complete circuit the path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors and back to its original source
Direct current (DC) definition a constant, even-flowing current that travels one way only and produces a chemical reaction
Alternating current (AC) definition a rapid, interrupted current that travels one way then the opposite way and produces a mechanical reaction
Direct current (DC) example has a battery
Alternating current (AC) example plugs into a wall outlet
Converter an apparatus that changes DC to AC
Rectifier an apparatus that changes AC to DC
UL abbreviates Underwriters Laboratory
UL symbol on appliance certifies safety when used according to manufacturers' directions
Volt (V) unit that measures the force pushing the electron flow through a conductor
Amp (A) unit that measures the strength of an electric current (number of electrons flowing through a wire)
Ohm (O) unit that measures the resistance of an electric current
Watt (W) unit that measures the amount of electric energy in use per second
Facial treatment current measured in milliamperes
Milliampere one-thousandth of an ampere
Kilowatt (K) 1000 watts; electricity is measured in kilowatt hours (kwh)
Plug prong connector after an electric cord that connects an apparatus to an electrical outlet
Jack plug-in device used to make electrical contact
Polarity changer switch that reverses with the direction of the current from positive to negative and vice versa
Rheostat control that regulates current strength
Milliampere meter device to measure electric current flow rate
Fuse device preventing excessive current from passing through a circuit
Circuit breaker switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first sign of an overload
Grounding "live" connection supplies current while ground connection completes circuit and carries current safely away
Plug with one prong larger than other prevents electrical shock in case of short circuit
Plug with third prong has additional ground in case first ground fails or is improperly connected
Twisted electrical cord can cause a short circuit
Electrotherapy electric facial treatments
Wall plate instrument that plugs into a wall outlet and makes different types of electric currents used for facial and scalp treatments
Modalities electric currents used in facial and scalp treatments
Electrode applicator for directing electric current from the machine to the client's skin
Polarity the negative or positive pole of an electric current
Anode positive electrode, red and marked with a P or +
Cathode negative electrode, black and marked with an N or -
Four main modalities galvanic, faradic, sinusoidal, and Tesla high-frequency
Galvanic current constant and DC, with a positive and negative pole that produces chemical changes
Active electrode electrode used on the area to be treated
Inactive electrode opposite pole of the active electrode
produces acidic reactions(Galvanic) anode
produces alkaline reactions(Galvanic) cathode
closes pores(Galvanic) anode
opens pores(Galvanic) cathode
soothes nerves(Galvanic) anode
stimulates and irritates nerves(Galvanic) cathode
decreases blood supply(Galvanic) anode
increases blood supply(Galvanic) cathode
contracts blood vessels(Galvanic) anode
expands blood vessels(Galvanic) cathode
hardens and firms tissues(Galvanic) anode
softens tissues(Galvanic) cathode
Iontophoresis ionization
Ionization process introducing water-soluble products into the skin via electric current
Cataphoresis forcing acidic substances into deeper tissues via galvanic current from the positive to the negative pole
Anaphoresis forcing liquids into the tissues from the negative to the positive pole
Desincrustation disincrustation
Disincrustation process to soften and emulsify oil and blackheads in hair follicles
Faradic current alternating and interrupted current producing mechanical contractions to tone facial mms without a chemical effect
Sinusoidal current alternating current producing mechanical contractions to tone facial mms
Sinusoidal versus faradic greater stimulation, deeper penetration, less irritating
Tesla high-frequency thermal current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration
Tesla high-frequency aka violet ray
Tesla electrode made of glass or metal and only need one
Tesla effects can be stimulating or soothing but no mm contractions
High-frequency effects can be stimulating or soothing but no mm contractions
Contraindications for modalities broken capillaries, pustular acne, high blood pressure, contact with metal
High-frequency application direct surface and indirect
Direct surface application (THF) hold with finger to prevent sparking when applying and removing, remove finger once electrode is on client's skin
Sparking (THF) dab electrode to help disinfect and heal
Indirect application (THF) client holds electrode and current is turned on, massage client's face, turn off current, remove electrode
Light therapy treatment via light rays
Visible light visible electromagentic radiation
Electromagnetic radiation carries energy through space on waves
Wavelength distance between two successive peaks
Wavelength and frequency indirect relationship
Natural sunlight 35 percent visible, 5 percent UV, 60 percent infrared
Visible spectrum wavelengths shortest violet to longest red
Therapeutic lamps used to produce artificial light rays in the salon
UV rays aka cold or actinic rays
White light combination light or all visible rays of spectrum
Blue light only for bare oily skin
Red light for dry skin with oils and creams
Loupe magnifying lamp
Diopters powers of magnification of the magnifying lamps
Eyepads to protect client from the bright light
Wood's lamp filtered black light used in a dark room to illuminate fungi, bacterial disorders, pigmentation problems, and other skin problems
White fluorescence under Wood's lamp thick corneum layer
White spots under Wood's lamp horny layer of dead skin cells
Blue-white under Wood's lamp normal healthy skin
Light violet under Wood's lamp dehydrated
Yellow or pink under Wood's lamp oily areas/comedones
Brown under Wood's lamp pigmentation problems
Rotary brush purpose exfoliate and cleanse
Rotary brush use cleanse skin, start brush at forehead, continuing down face in horizontal sections down to the neck, letting the brush do the work
Rotary brush maintenance immerse in hospital-stregth disinfectant, dry and store in a closed container
Vacuum machine functions suction dirt and impurities from the skin and reduce appearance of creases
Steam benefits increases circulation, softens sebum and debris, relaxes skin and tissues, oxygenates skin
Steam treatment time 6-10 min; 1-5 holistically
High-frequency current alternating or sinusoidal
High-frequency 60,000 to 200,000 Hertz, no polarity and no chemical changes
High-frequency benefits antiseptic, increases circulation, oxygenates skin, increase cell metabolism, coagulates and heals lesions by sparking, relaxes
High-frequency in facial after extractions
High-frequency electrodes pink, orange or red from neon gas OR blue or violet from argon or rarified gas
Galvanic disincrustation anaphoresis to create a chemical reaction to emulsify sebum and debris
Galvanic iontophoresis cataphoresis or anaphoresis to create an ionic reaction to penectrate ions of applied solution
Iontophoresis client holds electrode with opposite polarity from product
Microcurrent causes visible muscle contraction treating conditions like Bell's Palsy and stroke paralysis
Created by: selfstudy08