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Pathology 3-1

Duke PA pathology

Neoplasia abnormal mass of tissue with excessive growth
Neoplasm tumor
Oncology study of tumors neoplasms
Benign neoplasms verruca, nevus, uterine leiomyoma
Verruca wart
Nevus mole
uterine leiomyoma fibroids
malignant neoplasms cancers
Types of cancers carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma
"oma" added to cell of origin, but some exceptions
What are the "omas" that are malignant? melanoma, hepatoma, lymphoma
Sarcoma arising mesenchymal tissue - Greek - flesh
Carcinoma arising from epithelial cells
Leukemia/lymphoma arising from blood-forming cells
growth pattern adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, papillary carcinoma
nomenclature of carcinoma growth pattern, organ of origin
proliferating neoplastic cells parenchyma
stroma connective, tissue, blood vessels, inflammatory cells
desmoplasia marked collagenous stromal response to a neoplasm
benign vs. malignant differentiation/anaplasia, rate of growth, local invasion, distant metastases
differentiation extent to which cells in neoplasm resemble normal cells in form and function
anaplasia lack of differentiation, lack of features that characterize mature cell
How are benign neoplasms differentiated? generally well differentiated, but abnormal mass
What degree of differentiation do malignant neoplasms? some degree of anaplasia - range from well-differentiated to undifferentiated
What are some markers of anaplasia? pleomorphism, hyperchromatic nuclei, increase nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
What are more markers of anaplasia? prominent nucleoli, clumped chromatin, atypical mitotic figures, loss of polarity
How do benign tumors grow in relation to local tissue? grow as cohesive, expansile masses that remain localized
What are some characteristics of benign tumors? discrete, easily moveable, can be surgically removed, pushing, not infiltrating
What are characteristics of malignant tumor invasion? demonstrate progressive infiltration, invasion and destruction of surrounding tissue
What are characteristics of the cancers in relation to surrounding tissue? poorly demarcated, lack well-defined cleavage plane
Carcinoma in situ displays all cytologic features of malignancy without invasion of the basement membrane
When does carcinoma in situ occur? in cancers that evolve from a pre-invasive stage
What are some examples of carcinoma in situ? carcinoma of the cervix, colon carcinoma
metastasis defined as distant spread of tumor
What does metastasis tell you about malignant vs. benign? marks a tumor as malignant - benign neoplasms do not metastasize
Can all malignant tumors metastasize? most, but not all, can metastasize
How can distant metastases occur? direct seeding, lymphatic spread, bloodstream spread
What is the most common target of metastases spreading through the bloodstream? liver or lungs
When may direct seeding of cavities and surfaces occur in metastases? when any malignant neoplasm penetrates into a cavity
When is direct seeding of cavities in metastasis common? in ovarian carcinoma, spreading to the peritoneal cavity
What is the most common route of spread for carcinomas and some sarcomas? lymphatic spread
Why does hematogenous spread usually target liver or lungs? portal drainage to liver, vena caval drainage to lungs
When is hematogenous spread common? sarcomas, but also occurs in carcinomas
What types of cancer tend to invade veins? renal and hepatocellular
What percentage of North American adults die from cancer every year? 25 percent
what is the 2nd leading cause of death? cancer
What are risk factors for cancer? age, family history, acquired pre-neoplastic disorders, geography and environment
Above what age do most cancers occur? 55 years and above
What is the leading cause of death in children under age 15? cancer
How does family history affect cancer risk? reflects inheritance of cancer susceptibility genes
Created by: ges13