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Pathology 2-3

Duke PA pathology

What are some arachidonic acid metabolites? prostaglandins & leukotrienes
What do prostaglandins do? vasoconstrict or vasodilate, involved in pain and fever
What do leuktotrienes do? increase vasular permability, vasoconstrict, leukocyt adhesion & chemotaxis
What is platelet activating factor synthesized by? platelets, leukocytes, endothelium
What are some inflammatory effects of platelet activating factor? stimulates platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction & bronchoconstriction, vasodilation and increased venular permeability
What are some more inflammatory effects of platelet activating factor? increased leukocyte adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and oxidative burst, increases synthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites
Cytokines proteins produced by many cell types (principally by activated lymphocytes and macrophages)
What do cytokines do? modulate the function of other cell types?
What are the major cytokines that mediate inflammation? Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
Chemokines small proteins that act as chemoattractants for specific types of leukocytes (~40)
What do chemokines do? stimulate leukocyte recruitment in inflammation
What else do chemokines do? contral normal migration of cells through tissues
What are examples of chemokines? IL-8, eotaxin, lymphotactin
Neuropeptides Substance P and neurokinin A
Where are neuropeptides produced? central and peripheral nervous systems
Where are substance P nerve fibers prominent? in lung and GI tract
What are neuropeptides mechanisms of action? vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
Neutrophil granules Cationic proteins increase vascular permeability, immobilze neutrophils, chemotactic for mononuclear phagocytes, and more
How are oxygen-derived free radicals produced? during phagocytosis by neutrophils "respiratory burst"
What do oxygen-derived free radicals cause? tissue damage including endothelium
What inflammatory mediators are involved in vasodilation? prostaglandins & nitric oxide
Histamine and serotonin cause what response in inflammation? increased vascular permeability
Complement (C3a, C5a) causes what response in inflammation? increased vascular permeability
Bradykinin and leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4) cause what response in inflammation? increased vascular permeability
PAF, nitric oxide, substance P and oxygen metabolites cause what response in inflammation? increased vascular permeability
Complement (C5a), leukotriene B4, chemokines and nitric oxide cause what response in inflammation? chemotaxis, leukocyte activation
Interleukin-1, TNF, and prostaglandins cause what response in inflammation? fever
Prostaglandins and bradykinin cause what response in inflammation? pain
neutrophil & macrophage lysosomal enzymes, O2 metabolites and nitric oxide cause what response in inflammation? tissue damage
Wound healing a complex but orderly process involving many chemical mediators and other growth facotrs, as well as cell-matrix interactions
Step 1 in wound healing injury induces acute inflammation
Step 2 in wound healing parenchymal cells regenerate
Step 3 in wound healing both parenchymal and connective tissue cells migrate and proliferate
Step 4 in wound healing extracellular matrix is produced
Step 5 in wound healing parenchyma and connective tissue matrix remodel
Step 6 in wound healing increase in wound strength due to collagen deposition
What is the "hallmark of healing"? granulation tissue
"Granulation tissue" term comes from what? soft, pink, granular appearance when viewed from the surface of a wound
Histology of granulation tissue proliferation of small blood vessels and fibroblasts, tissue often edematous
Summary - acute inflmmation neutrophils are pathognomonic
Summary - chronic inflammation plasma cells are pathognomonic
Granulomatous inflammation epitheliod macrophages are pathognomonic
Created by: ges13