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Pathology 1-3

Duke PA pathology

When is control of intracellular environment lost in apoptosis? maintained in early stages
What happens to cell shape in necrosis? cells swell and organelles swell
What happens to cell shape in apoptosis? cells contract
**add in slide 68,71**
How can you tell when a cell is in early apoptosis? chromatin margination and condensation
How can you tell when a cell is later in apoptosis? nucleus is fragmented
What happens to a cell after apoptosis? phagocytosis of apoptotic cellular remnants by adjacent cell
When does apoptosis happen in the thymus? stress - body releases corticosteroids causing apoptosis of t-cells
How is apoptosis regulated? the balance between factors that stimulate apoptosis and factors that inhibit apoptosis
What role does bcl-2 have in apoptosis? pro-survival
What role does bax have in apoptosis? pro-apoptosis
What does p53 do? helps cells respond to injury, if cells have too much damage, p53 up-regulates bax, tipping the scale to apoptosis
What are various ways cells can be signaled to undergo apoptosis? injury, withdrawal of growth factors, hormones, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, receptor-ligand interactions
What role do caspases play in apoptosis? initiator caspases signal executioner caspases which cause breakdown of cytoskeleten, forming the bleb
What two things can happen when a cell is exposed to a noxious agent in necrosis? excess of normal cell constituents or edema
At what point does a cell considered to have irreversible injury? when the cell becomes necrotic
What happens to a necrotic cell? autolysis, replacement, then regeneration or fibrosis….OR calcification
What are the types of necrosis? coagulative, liquefactive, fat, caseous, fibrinoid
What changes characterize necrosis? changes in cytoplasmic staining, in nuclear morphology and/or staining characteristics
In necrosis how does cytoplasm look? more eosinophilic
pyknosis nucleus shrinks and chromatin condenses; nucleus becomes more deeply basophilic (very dark blue with H&E stain)
Karyorrhexis nucleus breaks up into small pieces
Karyolysis nucleus becomes progressively paler staining and eventually disappears
Liquefactive necrosis pattern of cell death characterized by dissolution of necrotic cells
Where is liquefactive necrosis typically seen? in an abscess - large numbers of neutrophils release hydrolytic enzymes, break down dead cells
Pus liquified remnants of dead cells, including neutrophils
fat necrosis result of release of lipases into adipose tissue
In fat necrosis, what are triglycerides cleaved into? fatty acids
What do fatty acids bind to? bind to and precipitate calcium ions, forming insoluble salts
caseous necrosis occurs with granulomatous inflammation in response to certain microorangisms
Where is fat necrosis most commonly found? in pancreas injury
What is the most common microorganism that causes caseous necrosis? tuberculosis
What is the host response to microorganisms that cause caseous necrosis? chronic inflammatory response
Fibrinoid necrosis occurs in the wall of arteries in cases of vasculitis
What does fibroid necrosis cause? endothelial damage and necrosis of smooth muscle cells of the media
What does necrosis of smooth muscle cells and endothelial damage cause in fibrinoid necrosis? allows plasma proteins, primarily fibrin, to be deposited in the area of medial necrosis
Infarction cell death and coagulative necrosis due to prolonged ischemia
What do renal and splenic infarcts typically look like? wedge-shaped
What do liver infarcts look like? central lobular necrosis - area around central vein undergoes necrosis
What histologic changes occur in infarcts? cytoplasmic hyper-eosinophilia, karyolysis (complete at 2 days), acute inflammatory cell infiltration begins at 12 hours after coronary occlusion and peaks at 2-3 days
Created by: ges13