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Pathology 1-2

Duke PA pathology

How can radiation affect cells? damage cell membranes and DNA
What are the six morphologic responses to non-lethal injury? atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, intracellular storage
Morphology study of shape
Atrophy decrease in size, and often function, of cells, generally associated with a decrease in size and/or function of a tissue or organ
What are some causes of atrophy? disuse of muscle, decreased blood supply, inadequate nutrition, loss of endocrine stimulation, loss of growth factors
What are the two types of disuse atrophy of muscle? voluntary or denervation-induced
Hypertrophy increase in size of cells, due to an increase in the amount of protein and organelles, which results in an increase in the size of the tissue or organ
Examples of mechanical stimulus in hypertrophy cardiac and skeletal muscle hypertrophy
example of growth factor stimuluation in hypertrophy endocrine stimulation at puberty, pregnancy
Example of increase functional demand in hypertrophy unilateral nephrectomy
What are the three causes of hypertrophy? mechanical stimulus, growth factor stimulation, increased functional demand
hyperplasia increase in number of cells in organ or tissue
Causes of hyperplasia growth factor stimulation: endocrine or stress-induced, viral-induced
example of growth factor stimuluation in hyperplasia endometrial proliferation w/ menstrual cycle, callus formation during bone healing, erythroid hyperlasia under chronic hypoxic conditions
example of viral-induced hyperplasia warts
metaplasia replacement of one differentiated cell type with another
What is the main cause of metaplasia? chronic irritation
What are examples of chronic irriation in metaplasia? respiratory tract of smokers, cervix of sexually active females, esophagus in response to gastric acid
dysplasia abnormal or disorderly growth, recognized by a change in size, shape, and/or organization of cells within a tissue
What can dysplasia be a precursor to? cancer
What are examples of intracellular storage? lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, anthracotic pigment in alveolar macrophages, lipofuscin
Lipofuscin aging related pigment, "stuff in the cytoplasm that can't get broken down"
Antracotic black particles, from smoke and other things
What is the most common genetic disease in the US? hemochromatosis
What does hemochromatosis cause? systemic overload of iron
How do organ or tissue dysfunction occur? as the result of the cumulative impact of injury to individual cells
What is a good way to understand disease processes? focus on individual cells and their response to noxious stimuli
How can acute cell injury manifest itself? in many different ways, some of which are fully reversible and some of which are not
Can cells exhibit persistent dysfunction after noxious stimulus is over and still fully recover over time? yes
What is an example of cells being permanently injured without affecting their viability directly? radiation - prevent cells from dividing without killing them
What does cell injury but intact viability result in? lag between cell injury and organ dysfunction
**go back to slide 55***
necrosis a morphologic expression of cell death
What happens to the cellular structure in necrosis? progressive disintegration
What is necrosis generally initiated by? overwhelming stress
What does necrosis generally elicit? acute inflammatory cell response
Apoptosis an alternate pathway of cell deaht, called "programmed cell death" or "physiologic cell death"
What is apoptosis controlled by? specific genes
What happens to DNA and nucleus in apoptosis? fragmentation of DNA and nucleus
What is the process of apoptosis? blebs form and "apoptotic bodies" are released, "apoptotic bodies" phagocytized, no neutrophils
What are the pathologic states where apoptosis may be important? embryogenesis, withdrawal of trophic hormones, growth factors, ionizing radiation, free radical generation, mild thermal injury, steroids
How can apoptosis be important in viral infection? potent defense mechanism against virus - some viruses encode proteins to block apoptosis
In AIDS, what may be mediating loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes? apoptosis
How is apoptosis involved in cell-mediated immunity? cytotoxic T lymphocytes can kill target cells by inducing apoptosis
How is apoptosis important in autoimmune disease? removal of autoreactive immature lymphocytes is by apoptosis
What types of cell death may be involved in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system? apoptosis
How may apoptosis be important in neoplasia? eliminating cells with genetic defects + inhibition of apoptosis may contribute to prolonged life span of malignant cells
What size of areas does necrosis usually affect? large areas - contiguous cells
What size of areas does apoptosis usually affect? scattered individual cells
When is control of intracellular environment lost in necrosis? early
Created by: ges13