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Pathology 1-1

Duke PA pathology

Pathology Study of disease, focusing on physiologic, gross and microscopic morpholic changes in cells reacting to injury
Disease "an impairment of the normal state of the living animal or plant body that affects the performance of the vital functions"
Etiology cause of diseases
Idipathic unknown etiology
latrogenic "provider induced"
pathogenesis is a description of the mechanisms by which disease develop
sign objective evidence (a perceptible change) that signals disease
symptom a patient's subjective experience or interpretation of the disease
syndrome a group of signs and or symptoms that characteristically occur together as a part of a single disease process
pathognomonic a sign, symptom of characteristic of a disease that leads to its accurate diagnosis
prognosis reasonable predictions about the course of a disease or process taking into account the natural history, the expected effects of therapy and particular factors specific for the individual case
paraenchyma functional elements of an organ e.g., myocardial cell of the heart, neuron of the brain
stroma framework or support elements of an organ e.g., connective tissue
lesion any pathological abnormality of tissue structure or function
What does disease result from? cumulative effects of injury to individual cells
How do different cell types respond to stress? differently
How do consequences of cell injury differ? depends on cell type
How do cells interact with their environment? they are not static, must be able to adapt
What do cells need to perform functions and maintain viability? energy
Deficiency lack of necessary substance
Types of deficiency nutritional deficiency, inability to absorb or utilize nutrients, genetic defect leading to inadequate production or regulation
Intoxication presence of a substance that interferes with cell function
Examples of endogenous intoxication genetic defect, accumulation of metabolite
Examples of exogenous intoxication infectious agents, chemicals, drugs (illegal and prescription)
Trauma loss of structural integrity
Examples of trauma hypothermia, hyperthermia, mechanical pressure, infections
Hypothermia formation of ice crystals
hyperthermia denaturation or oxidation of proteins
infections in trauma cell rupture or lysis
hypoxia state of tissue or cell oxygen deficiency
ischemia oxygen deprivation due to lack of blood flow
What do cells need oxygen? anearobic glycolysis = 2 ATP vs. oxidative phosphorylation = 36 ATP
What happens to cellular metabolism in state of hypoxia? switches to anaerobic glycolysis as the primary source of energy
What happens if O2 is lacking because of ischemia? inflow of substrate decreases and efflux of metabolic end-products slows - no incoming glucose, no taking out of waste products - toxic to cell
What do hypoxic cells consume first? energy reserves
Energy reservers creatine phosphates in muscle, adenine nucleotides break down
What happens to anaerobic glycolysis in state of hypoxia? increase, with accumulation of lactic acid and inorganic phosphate
What cellular processes are impacted first during hypoxia? ion transport
What happens when there is not enough energy to man ion pumps? concentration gradient takes over
What is Na+/K+ ATPase needed for? keep intracellular Na+ from rising
What happens when ion pump is off? Na+ comes in and water follows
What happens to tissue osmolality when there is not enough energy for ion pumps to function? increases due to catabolism within ischemic cells, water flows in passively
What is one of the first signs of ischemia? swelling of the cell
Where does lipid accumulation occur the most? liver
How does lipid accumulation affect lipoprotein synthesis? impaired lipoprotein synthesis (ethanol, protein malnutrition)
How does lipid accumulation affect fatty acid oxidation? decreased fatty acid oxidation (hypoxia)
How does lipid accumulation affect liberation of fat? increased liberation of fat from peripheral stores (starvation)
How does starvation accumulate fat in liver? fat stores in body are liberated and liver picks them up
What are the manifestations of cell injury? acute cessation of specialized functions, persistent impairment of function after cessation of noxious stimulus, loss of ability to replicate
What are the three main mechanisms of cell injury? deficiency, intoxication, trauma
Created by: ges13