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68WM6 Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
A science and study of food that includes ingestion, digestion, and metabolism, important to many of the body’s systems and has a direct and indirect role to all body processes. Nutrition
Building blocks of proteins, end products in protein digestion. Amino Acid
The building and repairing phase of metabolism. Anabolism
Self imposed starvation at or below 85% normal weight. Anorexia Nervosa
Amount of energy used at rest to maintain vital body functions. Basal Metabolic Rate
Compulsive overeating. Binge Eating
This is used to estimate to determine if a person is at risk due to weight, used to define obesity. Body Mass Index
Eating disorder, continuous eating followed by purging, body weight is usually normal. Bulimia Nervosa
Destructive phase of metabolism. Catabolism
Waxy fat-like substance found in the blood stream that is needed to make cell membranes, Vitamin D, and hormones. Cholesterol
Nondigestible chemical substances found in plants. Dietary Fiber
When the contents of the stomach enter too rapidly into the duodenum. Dumping syndrome
Administration of nutrients into the G.I. Tract. Enteral Nutrition
Nutrients that must be obtained from the diet. Essential Nutrients
The body’s storage form of carbs in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glycogen
Process when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it solid at room temperature. Hydrogenation
A measurement of energy that a specific food can provide the body. Kilocalorie
No meat or eggs, but will consume dairy. Lactovegetarian
No meat, but will eat dairy products and eggs. Lactovovegetarian
Fats, oils, sterols, phospholipids, and waxes (all water insoluble.) Lipids
Lipid surrounded by protein. Transport lipids. LDL, VLDL, HDL. Lipoprotein
Specific nutrition services to treat a condition. Medical Nutrition Therapy
The amount of nitrogen consumed compared to the amount excreted. Nitrogen Balance
Foods with one or more high quality nutrients in a small amount of calories. Nutrient Dense Food
Excess of adipose, 33% adults and 22% of children are obese, genetics and lifestyle contribute. Obesity
Administering nutrients in a way other than the alimentary canal (Example: IV.) Parenteral Nutrition
Related to inadequate intake of B12, more common in older people. Pernicious Anemia
Substances that remain in the colon after digestion is completed. Residue
A feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food. Satiety
A diet used as a medical treatment. Therapeutic Diet
Instance when no food is given by other routes. Total Parental Nutrition
Liquefied food is put into the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, or feeding tube. Tube Feeding
A person that eliminates all intake of foods of animal origin. Vegan
A vitamin that primarily helps with blood clotting. Vitamin K
A mineral that primarily regulates fluid and acid base balance. Sodium
A mineral that primarily helps in cellular function and regulation of fluid, has a role in acid base balance, helps lower high BP. Potassium
A mineral that primarily deals with bone and teeth formation, also aids in clotting. Calcium
A mineral that primarily works on Energy Metabolism, Oxygen transport. Part of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron
A mineral that primarily works on Bone mineralization, BP regulation. Contraction and relaxation of muscles. Magnesium
A mineral that primarily forms RBCs. Necessary to use iron. Copper
A mineral that is essential to immune function, Wound healing. Involved in metabolism, second only to iron. Zinc
The human body is 60% water at adult, 80% at infant. This transports substances, serves as a lubricant. Regulates body temperature, Aids in digestion, provides moisture. Vary depending on age, activity, and health. Water
Polysaccharides, Nondigestible. Prevents constipation, Reduces cholesterol. Speeds transit of foods, Reduces colon pressure. Dietary Fibers
Fiber that dissolves in water, Slows digestion rate. Decrease in blood sugar absorption. Soluble Fiber
Fiber that does not dissolve in water. Aids in material movement through GI Tract. Insoluble Fiber
Stage of growth where most rapid growth and development occurs, average infant birth weight triples by age one. Infancy
Stage of growth where appetite tapers, growth rate slows; Food is often a common source of contention at meal time. Childhood
Stage of growth where they generally eats Kilocalorie rich, nutrient poor snack foods and other fast foods. Adolescence
Stage of growth where they have decreased energy and activity levels. Adulthood
Type of Therapeutic Diet that is used to reduce the frequency and volume of fecal output, to “rest” the G.I. tract. Fiber Restricted Diet
Type of Therapeutic Diet that is used to increase fecal bulk, regularity; normalize blood lipid levels, slow glucose absorption. High Fiber Diet
Type of Therapeutic Diet that is used to reduce GI symptom associated with consuming lactose. Lactose Intolerant Diet
Type of Therapeutic Diet that is used to relieve symptoms and nutrient losses associated with intolerance to high fat intakes. Fat Resident Diet
Type of Therapeutic Diet that is used to provide nutrients to support tissue healing & to minimize reflux, early satiety, dumping syndrome, & post surgery weight loss. Post Gasstroectomy Diet
Type of Therapeutic Diet that is used to provide a diet that minimizes obstruction, gas, & unpleasant odors in ostomy PTs. Ostomy Diet
Type of Therapeutic Diet that is used to provide energy and nutrients in excess of unusual requirements in order to improve overall nutrition status. High Calorie/Protein Diet
A type of modified diet used to supply fluid, electrolytes, and energy in a form that requires minimal digestion, stimulation, and leaves minimal residue in the G.I. tract. Clear Liquid Diet
A type of modified diet designed to provide adequate calories, protein, and fluids for PTs unable to swallow, chew, or digest solid foods. Blenderized Liquid Diet
A type of modified diet used to provide texture modified foods requiring minimal chewing. Mechanically Altered Diet
A type of modified diet used to provide adequate energy, nutrients, and fluids in a consistency safely tolerated by the patient. Dysphagia Diet
A name for simple sugars in which to include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Monosaccharides
A name for simple sugars in which inludes sucrose, maltose, and lactose. Disaccharides
Type of fat that is liquid at room temperature. Unsaturated Fat
Type of fat that is solid at room temperature. Saturated Fat
Type of fat that is created when hydrogen is added to an unsaturated fat. Trans Fat
Organic compounds that are essential in small quantities for normal physiologic and metabolic funtioning of the body. Vitamins
A deficiency that occurs with lack of Thiamin (B1). Beriberi
A deficiency that occurs with lack of Niacin (B3). Pellagra
A deficiency that occurs with lack of Folate or Folic Acid (B9) Spina Bifida
A deficiency that occurs with lack of Vitamin C. Scurvy
A deficiency that occurs with lack of Vitamin D in children. Rickets
A deficiency that occurs with lack of Vitamin D in adults. Osteomalacia
A deficiency that occurs with lack of Vitamin E. Rara
Recommended additional calories per day during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. 300
Eating disorder characterized by craving and consuming nonnutritive, nonfood items. Pica
The development of diabetes during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes
Recommendation are to limit caffeine to this amount of mg/day for pregnant females. 100
Recommended additional calories per day during lactation. 500
Type of digestion which includes the process of chewing, grinding, and crushing of food into smaller pieces. Mechanical Digestion
Type of digestion which includes salivary amylase begins the breakdown of charbohydrate. Chemical Digestion
Type of diabetes previously known as juvenile diabetes where the body does not produce insulin. Type 1 Diabetes
Type of diabetes previously known as adult onset diabetes where the body does not produce enough insulin or does not properly utilize the insulin produced. Type 2 Diabetes
A medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. Cause of chronic renal failure. Hypertension
A waste product of protein metabolism, and is filtered out by the kidney. Urea
Nutrition Support Team Member that are ultimately responsible for the nutritional care of the patient. Physician
Nutrition Support Team Member that identifies patients that are at nutritional risk, completes a comprehensive nutritional assessment, etc. Dietitian
Nutrition Support Team Member that ensures quality assurance protocols are followed in the production of TPN formulas, evaluates the PT for drug-nutrient interactions, etc. Pharmacist
Nutrition Support Team Member that is responsible for doing all of the grunt work. Nurse
Created by: ryguy5254 on 2009-09-29



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