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# Statistics

### Elementary Statistics using Excel

Term | Meaning |
---|---|

Parameter | Measured characteristic of a population |

Statistic | Measured characteristic of a sample |

Statistics | Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data |

Population | Complete and entire collection of elements to be studied |

Census | Collection of data from every element in a population |

Sample | Subset of a population |

Discrete data | Data with the property that the number of possible values is either a finite number or a |

Continuous data | Data resulting from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions or jumps |

Ordinal | Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meningless |

Interval | Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that can be arranged in order and for which diffeences between data values are meaningful |

Self-selected sample | Sample in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included; also called voluntary response sample |

Observational Study | Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but don't attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied |

Experiment | Application of treatment followed by observation of its effects on the subjects |

Confounding | A situation that occurs when the effects from two or more variables cannot be distinuished from each other |

Random Sample | Sample selected in a way that allows every member of the population to have the same chance of being chosen |

Simple Random Sample | Sample of a particular size selected so that every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being chosen |

Systematic Sampling | Sampling in which every kth ( such as every 50th) element is selected |

Convenience Sampling | Sampling in which dataa are selected because they are readily available |

Stratified Sampling | Sampling in which samples are drawn from each stratum (class) |

Cluster Sampling | Dividing the population area into sections (or clusters), then randomly selecting a few of those sections, and then choosing all the members from those selected sections |

Sampling Error | Difference between a sample result and the true population result; results from chance sample fluctuations |

Nonsampling Errors | Errors from external factors not related to sampling |

Data | Observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected |

Statistics | A collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data. |

Statistics | (blank) |

Population | The complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. it includes all subjects to be studied. |

Census | The collection of data from every member of the population |

Sample | A subcollection of members selected from a population |

Created by:
SheriDee