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Statistics

Elementary Statistics using Excel

TermMeaning
Parameter Measured characteristic of a population
Statistic Measured characteristic of a sample
Statistics Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data
Population Complete and entire collection of elements to be studied
Census Collection of data from every element in a population
Sample Subset of a population
Discrete data Data with the property that the number of possible values is either a finite number or a
Continuous data Data resulting from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions or jumps
Ordinal Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that may be arranged in order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meningless
Interval Level of measurement of data; characterizes data that can be arranged in order and for which diffeences between data values are meaningful
Self-selected sample Sample in which the respondents themselves decide whether to be included; also called voluntary response sample
Observational Study Study in which we observe and measure specific characteristics, but don't attempt to manipulate or modify the subjects being studied
Experiment Application of treatment followed by observation of its effects on the subjects
Confounding A situation that occurs when the effects from two or more variables cannot be distinuished from each other
Random Sample Sample selected in a way that allows every member of the population to have the same chance of being chosen
Simple Random Sample Sample of a particular size selected so that every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being chosen
Systematic Sampling Sampling in which every kth ( such as every 50th) element is selected
Convenience Sampling Sampling in which dataa are selected because they are readily available
Stratified Sampling Sampling in which samples are drawn from each stratum (class)
Cluster Sampling Dividing the population area into sections (or clusters), then randomly selecting a few of those sections, and then choosing all the members from those selected sections
Sampling Error Difference between a sample result and the true population result; results from chance sample fluctuations
Nonsampling Errors Errors from external factors not related to sampling
Data Observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected
Statistics A collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data.
Statistics (blank)
Population The complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. it includes all subjects to be studied.
Census The collection of data from every member of the population
Sample A subcollection of members selected from a population
Created by: SheriDee