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Ch 4,5,6

ZELMAN Human Diseases 6th ed

What are the 3 stages of cancer devolopment in chronological order? Initiation, Promotion and Progression
Why are cancer cells sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy? Because cancer cells are dividing all the time
How often should women have breast self-exams? once a month
What is the normal sex chromosome of a normal male? XY
How many chromosomes do humans have? 46
Why do sex-linked diseases affect men more than women? Because they have an X chromosome
What are two colors that color blind people cannot distinguish? Red and Green
What facilitates blood clotting? Vitamin K
What occurs with the deficiency or toxicity of potassium? cardiac arrest
Do benign tumors metastasize? No
What are examples of carcinogens? cigarettes, asbestos
What is a risk factor for some types of cancers? environment
Cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death in the US. true
What contributes to the integrity of mucous membranes? Vitamin A
What happens when children are weaned too quickly from breast milk? Kwashiorkor
Does the lack of calcium cause goiter No
What does DNA contain? genetic information
When does the incidence of Down syndrome increase? with the mother's age
Turner's Syndrome one of the sex chromosomes is missing resulting in karyotype of 45, XO, indicating the presence of 45 chromosomes, with only one X chromosome.
A person should apply sunscreen of at least 15 spf
What stands as a warning sign of cancer? caution
Biopsy is surgical removal and examination under a microscope.
What is nightblindness caused by? A lack of Vitamin A
What does lack of Vitamin D in adults result in? osteomalacia
What are bleeding gums cause by? a lack of Vitamin C
What is weak muscle a sign of? Vitamin D deficiency
What are congenital diseases? those appearing @ birth or shortly after
What is an example of a familial disease? Diabetes
What % chance does a female carrier of a sex-linked trait have of transmitting it to her offspring? 50%
adenoma benign tumor of a gland
neoplasm mass of cells that grow more rapidly that normal cells
promotion altered cells that proliferate and bear a resemblance to benign neoplasms
chromosomes DNA assembled into these units
hermaphrodite individuals who have both testes and ovaries
amniocentesis small amount of smniotic fluid that is withdrawn for testing
scurvy disease due to Vitamin C deficiency
hypercalcemia excessive Vitamin D
osteomalacia bone disease in adults caused by lack of Vitamin D; softening of the bones
rickets deficient bones in children that develops when Vitamin D is deficient and can be devoloped by diet
hemophiliac person who blees for long periods of time
cyst sac or capsule containing fluid, usually harmless
sarcoma highly malignant connective tissue tumors
____cancer is the most lethal of all gynecological cancers. ovarian
Cancer cells develop from normal cells throught a complex process called____. transformation
Direct visualization techniques or____are used to assess specific locations and to obtain a tissue biopsy. endoscopy
A benign tumor on a gland or____can stimulate oversecretion of a hormone in the structure from which it develops adenoma
____cell carcinomas appear on skin that is visibly damaged as rough, flaky, red scales, with or without ulceration. squamous
____are malignant neoplasms derived from pigment producing cells melanomas
____are benign brain tumors that occur in the membranes that surroung the brain. meningiomas
____is the second phase of malignant transformation whereby initiated cells proliferate and resemble benign neoplasms. promotion
A____or tumor is a mass of cells that grow more rapidly that normal cells. neoplasm
____is the systemic administration of medications to kill tumor cells chemotherapy
Cancer signs and symptoms are often mistaken for signs of other, less-threatening diseases True
Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of disease and premature death in the U.S. True
Malignant tumors do not recur after removal False benign tumors
At least 1/3 of all cancers can be attributed to living habits and carcinogens in the environment True
Lipomas occur more often in men than in women. False women do
A nagging cough or hoarseness can be a non-specific warning sign of cancer true
a malignant neoplsm is usually localized to a tissue or organ false a benign neoplasm
Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer that occurs in nonsmokers true
Tumor of the muscle myoma
bloody sputum heomoptysis
cancers of blood forming tissue leukemia
used to detect breast cancer mammography
a change in genetic material prepares the cell to become cancerous initiation
swallowing difficulties dysphagia
cancer cachexia nutritional wasting
non-cancerous benign neoplasm
tumor marker measured in blood PSA
highly malignant connective tissue tumors that originate muscle, fat, bone, and blood vessels sarcoma
The allele for color blindness is on the__chromosome. X
Some alleles always produce an effect and are said to be____. dominant
____is a multi-systemic disease resulting from the dysfunction of the gene that codes for the connective tissue protein fibrillin Marfan syndrome
____involves removing cells from the villi through the cervix. Chronic Billus Sampling
DNA is assembled into units called____. chromosomes
In____the person's sex chromosomes are XXY. Klinefelter's Syndrome
____is identified by a break, or weakness, on the long arm of the X chromosome. Fragile X syndrome
____are alternate forms of a gene. Alleles
____is the failure of two chromosomes to separate as the gametes, either the egg or the sperm, are beign formed. Nondisjunction
Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common cause of cardiovascular disease in the U.S. True
A female may have the sex-linked disease if she is homozygous for the recessive gene. True
There are no treatments available for the hereditary diseases False
Sickle cell anemia is an autosomal recessive disorder True
Autosomes determine gender False
People with hemophilia do not bleed more profusely or bleed faster than normal; they bleed for a longer period of time True
If one parent is normal for a particular condition, each child has a 50% chance of being affected and manifesting the genetic defect True
Sex cells divide by a process called mitosis False
Phenylketonuria is caused by an autosomal dominant allele False
Alleles that always produce an effect are said to be dominant True
Only manifest themselves when the person is homozygous for the trait recessive allele
An enzyme deficiency cause abnormal lipid metabolism in the brain, which results in progressive mental and physical retardation Tay-sachs
Extra fingers or toes polydactyly
XO karyotype Turner's Syndrome
Identical alleles homozygous
Diseases manifest theselves only when a person is homozygous for the defective allele Autosomal recessive diseases
cartilage formation in the fetus is defective achondroplasia
lack the enzyme necessary to convert galactose, a sugar derived from lactose in milk, to glucose galactosemia
different alleles heterozygous
a deletion of part of the short arm of choromosome 5 Cri du chat syndrome
___is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world Iron Deficiency Anemia
Nearly___of adult Americans are overwight or obes despite published recommendation for healthy eating and healthy lifestyles 1/3
____works with calcium to support bone and tooth formation, nerve conduction, and muscle contractions magnesium
____is required for absorption of clalcium and phosphorus from the gastrointestinal tract and for mineralization of bone Vitamin D
____are chemical compounds consumed in food that are required for vital cellular processes that ensure growth and development, recovery from illness, and prevention of chronic disease Nutrients
___are inorganic metals that do not furnish energy minerals
Dietary vitamin C is required to prevent and to treat____ scurvy
____is caused by inadequate intake of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and water PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition)
____, though not an esssential mineral, is necessary for the prevention of dental carries Fluorine
There are approximately___nutrients that are required by the human body 40
More that 300 candidate genes have been identified that influence obesity in humans True
In acute fluorine toxicity, irrecular chalky withe patches occur on the surface of the teeth True
The primary manifestation of vitamin E deficiency is hemolytic anemia true
obesity is the leadiing preventable cause of death among adults in the U.S. False
Excess calcium is excreted through the bile produced by the liver false
vitamin K deficiency is common in adults false
Health care costs associated with obesity amount to nearly $100 biliion annually within the U.S. True
Most large controlled research studies fail to demonstrate the value of vitamin C in the treatment or prevention of the common cold True
the thyroid gland stores about 80% of the iodide that is ingested True
Children raised in families with one overweight parent have a 80% chance of becoming overweight as an adult. False
Can be syntehsized from the amino acid tryptophan Niacin
Vitamin D deficiency in children Rickets
Organic compounds that have important functions in metabolic reations that result in the release or storage of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Vitamins
Functions as a coenzyme in gas exchange and in fat and carbohydrate metabolism Biotin
Antioxidant protects tissues against free radicals Vitamin C
Required for synthesis of coagulation factors within the liver Vitamin K
Serves as a component in protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism and fro red blood cell synthesis Folic Acid
Inorganic elements that do not provide energy, but are needed for a number of anabolic and catabolic biochemical reactions within the body Minerals
An important regulator for muscle activity and transmission of nerve impulses Potassium
Combines with opsin to form rhodopsin, a pigment receptor that absorbs light in the rods of the retina in the eye Vitamin A
Created by: fallsummerspring