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soc stud 100 facts

October 12,1492 Christopher Columbus discovered New World
Indentured servant A laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for a passage to America
William Penn The founder of Pennsylvania which put Quaker ideals of tolerance and equality into practice.
Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut The first written Constitution in america which described the organization of representative government in detail
New England Colonies Founded for religious freedom. Includes Connecticut,Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island.
Middle Colonies Culturally diverse region of the British Colonies.Includes Delaware, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania.
Southern Colonies Founded mainly for profit.Includes Georgia, N & S Carolina,Virginia and Maryland.
Great Awakening A religious revival that created a new emphasis on education,promotes the belief that all men are equal and makes americans more willing to question authority
john Paul Jones American Revolutionary naval officer.
Marquis de Lafayette French noble who served as George Washington's aide and led Patriot troops at Yorktown
Popular Sovereignty Means that the people are the most important source of governmental power.
George Mason A member of the Constitutional Convention who refused to sign the document without a bill of rights
McCulloch v Maryland Was an 1819 Supreme Court decision that held that the necessary and proper clause allows Congress to do more than the Constitution expressly allows it to do
John Adams Boston lawyer and patriot who became 2nd President of U.S.
John Marshall Famous U.S. Supreme Court Chief justice who set out the principles of Judicial Review
War of 1812 Fought between U.S. and Great Britain over freedom of the sea and the issue of impressment
Nullification The idea of a state declaring a federal law illegal.
Spoils System The practice of handing out government jobs to supporters and replacing government employees with the winning candidates supporters
Andrew Jackson Leader of the original Democratic Party and "President of the people".Responsible for the Trail Of Tears which forced Native Americans west of the Mississippi River.
James Monroe Author of the Monroe Doctrine,
Monroe Doctrine Foreign policy statement which stated -1) the U.S. would not interfere with European affairs , and 2)that the western hemisphere was closed to colonization or interference by European nations.
Mexican War conflict which occurred after the annexation of Texas, from which the U.S. seized the southwest territory inc.New Mexico , Arizona and California.
Gibbons v Ogden 1824 Supreme Court decision that ruled that only Congress can regulate commercial activity that has both intrastate and interstate dimensions.
abolitionist a person who wanted to end slavery in the U.S.
civil disobedience the refusal to obey a government law as a means of passive resistance because of ones moral belief.
Henry David Thoreau The author of Civil Disobedience and Walden Pond, who refused to pay his taxes to protest the Mexican War.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention creating the Women's Rights Movement in the U.S.
Second Great Awakening wave of religious fervor that inspired missionary work and social reform movements.
cotton gin invention by Eli Whitney that sped up the process of cleaning cotton fibers
steamboat Robert Fulton's steamboat revolutionized transportation and trade in the U.S.
Bessemer Steel Process discovered by both William Kelly and Henry Bessemer is a process that uses blasts of cold air to burn off impurities from heated iron to improve steel production
John C.Calhoun S.Carolina Senator who spoke for the South before and during the Civil War
Henry Clay Kentucky Senator known as The Great Compromiser.He proposed the American System and Compromise of 1850
Daniel Webster Massachusetts Senator who spoke for the North and the preservation of the Union
Frederick Douglass former slave who became the best known black abolitionist in the country, and founded the North Star newspaper.
Harriet Tubman escaped slave who became a conductor on the underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves to freedom.
Dred Scott v Sanford 1857 Supreme Court decision that ruled slaves were property and not citizens and that Congress could not ban slavery in territories
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy during the Civil War
Lincoln's 1st Inaugural Address stated that "no state can lawfully get out of the Union, but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it.
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address was meant to heal and restore the country after 4 years of Civil War
Reconstruction the reorganization and rebuilding of the former confederate States after the Civil War
13th Amendment abolished slavery
14th amendment guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States
15th Amendment Guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race. (excluding women).
Created by: agarbutt