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Med Term Respiratory

carbon dioxide (CO2) tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during the metabolic process
cartilage tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone
cilia any hairlike structure
breathing ventilation
diffuse moving or spreading out of a substance at a random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces
homeostasis state in which the regulatory mecanisms of the body maintain a constant internal environment
mucous membrane moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment; also called mucosa
oxygen (O2) tasteless, odorless, colorless gas essential for human respiration
pH symbol that indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance
septum Wall dividing two cavities, such as the nasal septum, which separates the two nostrils
serous membrane thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities, the cells of which secrete a fluid that keeps the membrane moist; also called serosa
olfactory neurons receptors for sense of smell
pharynx throat
nosapharynx posterior to nose
oropharynx posterior to mouth
laryngopharynx superior to larynx
adenoids pharyngeal tonsils
palatine tonsils tonsils
larynx voice box
epiglottis leaf-shaped structure on top of larynx
trachea windpipe
bronchi 2 branches that trachea divides into
bronchioles smaller branches of bronchus
alveoli tiny air sacs at end of bronchioles
mediastinum space between right and left lungs
pleura serous membrane covering lobes of lungs
visceral pleura membrane lying closest to the lung
parietal pleura membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
pleural cavity space bteween visceral and parietal pleura
diaphragm large muscular partition lying between chest and abdominal cavities
inspiration drawing air into lungs
expiration air leaving the lungs
pulmonary ventilation more commonly called breathing, involuntary action that moves air into and out of the lungs
external respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries
transport of respiratory gases occurs when blood transports CO2 to the lungs and O2 to body cells
internal respiration exchange of O2 and CO2 between body cells and blood in systemic capillaries
nas/o nose
rhin/o nose
sept/o septum
sinus/o sinus, cavity
adenoid/o adenoids
tonsill/o tonsils
pharyng/o pharynx
epiglott/o epiglottis
laryng/o larynx
trache/o trachea
bronchi/o bronchus
bronch/o bronchus
alveol/o alveolus; air sac
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o air; lung
pneumon/o air; lung
pulmon/o lung
anthrac/o coal, coal dust
atel/o incomplete; imperfect
coni/o dust
cyan/o blue
lob/o lobe
orth/o straight
ox/i oxygen
ox/o oxygen
pector/o chest
steth/o chest
thorac/o chest
phren/o diaphragm
spir/o breathe
-capnia carbon dioxide (CO2)
-osmia smell
-phonia voice
-pnea breathing
-ptysis spitting
-thorax chest
brady- slow
dys- bad; painful; difficult
eu- good, normal
tachy- rapid
pulmonology medical specialty concerned with disorders of respiratory system
pulmonologist physician who treats disorders of respiratory system
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes respiratory disorders that produce a chronic partial obstruction of the air passages
dyspnea difficult to breath
bronchospasms spasms in bronchial passages
paroxysmal sudden and violent
productive cough coughing producing large amounts of mucus
mucolytics agents that loosen and break down mucus
bronchodilators medications that expand bronchi
status asthamticus when usual measures do not reverse bronchospasms
chronic bronchitis inflammation of bronchi caused mainly by smoking and air pollution
expectorants medications that aid in the removal of mucus
emphysema characterized by decreased elasticity of alveoli
dilate expand
orthopnea standing erect
influenza (flu) acute infectious respiratory viral disease
pandemics world wide epidemics
virulent high infectious
myalgia generalized muscle pain
auscultation listening of sounds made by organs of the body using a stethoscope
percussion gentle tapping of the chest with fingers and listening to the resultant sounds
transudate noninflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with slightly less protein
exudate usually high in protein and often contains blood and immune cells
hydrothorax serum
empyema pus
pyothorax pus
hemothorax blood
pneumothorax air entering pleural space
thoracocentesis surgical puncture of chest using a hollow-bore needle
throacentesis surgical puncture of chest using a hollow-bore needle
Tuberculosis (TB) communicable disease caused by bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
droplet nuclei droplets of respiratory secretions
viable alive
primary tuberculosis first time TB organism enters body
granulomas inflammatory nodules, also called tubercles
immunocompromised immune system becomes impaired
combination therapy using several antibiotics at the same time
pneumonia any inflammatory disease of lungs that may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi
aspiration pneumonias pneumonia caused by food or liquid inhalation
lobar pneumonia penumonia affecting only a lobe of the lung
bronchopneumonia more diffuse pneumonia
hemoptysis spitting of blood
consolidation engorged
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) type of pneumonia closely associated with AIDS
normal flora resides in or on most people
opportunistic infectious
lavage washings
cystic fibrosis hereditary disorder of exocrine glands that causes body to secrete viscous mucus
viscous thick
aerosols mists
sweat test measures amount of salt excreted in sweat; usted to test for cystic fibrosis
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) condition in which lungs no longer function effectively
systemic infections infections that affect entire body
sepsis infections that affect blood
edema fluid filled
Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) form of respiratory distress syndrome, also called infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
surfactant phospholipid substance that helps kep alveoli open
cyanosis blueness
nares nostrils
tachypnea rapid breathing
hyaline membrane membrane with ground-glass appearance
primary pulmonary cancer most common form of lung cancer, bronchogenic carcinoma
metastasizes spreads
acidosis excessive acidity of body fluids
anosmia absence of the sense of smell
apnea temporary loss of breathing
3 types of apnea obstructive (enlarged tonsils and adenoids), central (failure of brain to transmit impulses for breathing), and mixed (combination of obstructive and central apnea)
sleep apnea sleeping disorder in which breathing stops repeatedly for more than 10 seconds, causing measurable blood deoxygenation
asphyxia condition caused by insufficent intake of oxygen
atelectasis collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung
cheyne-Stokes respiration repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all
compliance ease with which lung tissue can be stretched
coryza head cold; upper respiratory infection (URI)
crackle abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli; also called rale
croup common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages and, sometimes, lungs
deviated nasal septum displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils
epilgottitis severe, life-threatening infection of epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in hcildren between 2 and 12 years of age
epistaxis nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage
finger clubbing enlargement of terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in blood
hypoxia deficency of oxygen in tissues
pertussis acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whopping cough
pleurisy inflmmation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis
pneumoconiosis disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust (anthracosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron dust (siderosis), and asbestos particles (asbestosis)
pulmonary edema accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure
pulmonary embolus blackage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, tissue, air bubbles, and bacteria)
rhonchus abnormal breath sound heard on ausculatation
stridor high-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound casued by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months of age; also called crib death
wheeze whistling or sighing sound heard on ausculation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
Mantoux test intrademeral test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
oximetry noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry
polysomnography test of sleep cycles and stages using coninuous recordings of brain waves (EEGs), electrical activity of muscles, eye movement (electyro-oculogram), respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, heart rhythm
plumonary function tests (PFTs) multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exhcange across the alveolocapillary membrane
spirometry measurement of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor
laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities
mediastinoscopy visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes
arterial blood gas (ABG) test that measures partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), carbon dioxide (Pco2), pH (acidity or alkalinity), and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample
sputum culture microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonias
sweat test measurement of the amount of salt (sodium chloride) in sweat
throat culture test used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptoccoci
radiography process of producing images using an x-ray passed through the body or area and captures on a film
thoracic (chest) radiography images of the chest taken from anteroposterior projection, posteroanterior projection, lateral projection, or a combination of these projections
scan imaging procedure that gathers information about a specific organ or structure of the body, in some cases, small amounts of injected radionuclide are used to enhance images
lung scan nuclear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli
aerosol therapy lung treament using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways. tehcniques include nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), and dry powder inhalers (DPIs).
lavage irrigating or washing out of an organ, stomach, bladder, bowel, or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid
antral lavage irrigation of the antrum (maxillary sinus) in chronic or nonresponsive sinusitis
postural drainage positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs
pleurectomy excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal
pneumectomy excision of a lung
rhinoplasty reconstructive surgery of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic purposes
septoplasty surgical repair of a deviated septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
throacentesis surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity; also called pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis
tracheostomy surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted
antihistamines block histamines from binding with histamine recepter sites in tissues
antitussives relieve or suppress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in the medulla of the brain
bronchodilators stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, therby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow
bronchodilators stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, therby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow
corticoseteroids act on the immune system by blocking production of substances that trigger allergic and inflammatory actions
decongestants constrict blood vessels of nasal passages and limit blood flow, which causes swollen tissues to shrink so that air can pass more freely through the passageways
expectorants liquify respiratory secretions to that they are more easily dislodged udring coughing episodes
ABG arterial blood gas(es)
AP anteroposterior
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
CO2 carbon dioxide
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CT computed tomography
DPT diptheria, pertussis, tetanus
EEG electroencephalogram, electroencephalography
Hb, Hgb hemoglobin
Hx history
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
O2 oxygen
PFT pulmonary function test
pH symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
RDS respiratory distress syndrome
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
SOB shortness of breath
T&A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TB tuberculosis
TPR temperature, pulse, and respiration
URI upper respiratory infection
VC vital capacity
Created by: melmobax