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CSET World History

World History notes for CSET exam

Period of time for which we are dependent upon non-written sources pre-history
Estimated age of earth (according to popular science) six billion years old
Earliest known humans hominids
Location of first known humans Africa
When did Homo sapien sapiens first appear 200,000 - 150,000 years ago
Name the three periods of pre-history (prior to written history) 1)paleolithic or old stone age 2)mesolithic or middle stone age 3)neolithic or new stone age
paleolithic 2,500,000 years ago until about 10,000 BC; nomadic, small groups; hunting, foraging; tools from stone and bones; cave paintings
mesolithic 10,000 - 7,000 years ago; domesticated/growing plants; improved tools and weapons; less nomadic
neolithic 7,000 - 3,000 years ago; systematic agriculture; tamed animals; farming villages and towns; structured social systems
Mesopotamia Fertile crescent culture; began about 6,000 BC; Tigris/Euphrates river area; irrigation projects; copper, tin, bronze; Sumerians and Akkadians; cuneiform(pictures) writing in clay
Code of Hammurabi first written law code that applied to all people living within the Babylonian empire; 1700's BC
Egypt began about 4,800 BC;annual flooding of Nile irrigated and fertilized crops; polytheistic; strong centralized gov't; hieroglyphic writing; pharaohs; gods Amon and Re
India began about 2,500 BC;first civilizations called Harappan; on Indus River; drainage system carried waste underground to outside sewage pits;
China began about 6,500 BC; first dynasty Xia(Hsia) then Shang around 16th cent. BC; Shang overthrown by Zhou - lasted 800 years, longest in Chinese history;Zhou dynasty started irrigation projects, silk trade; polytheistic;
Greece Minoans on Crete 2600-1250BC; overseas trading; written languages such as Linear A - symbols stood for syllables; 1100-750BC Greek Dark Ages - art of writing disappeared
Greek city-states 8th-5th cent BC; writing re-invented; Homer(Iliad and Odyssey) & Hesiod (Works and Days; Theogony); gov't of oligarchs to democracy; Spartan army; Athens capital
Classical Greece 5th cent BC; began with Persian war - defeated Darius I, then 10 years later Xerxes; Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus,
Macedonians northern Greeks; mid-early 300s BC; Alexander the Great ruled from Greece, Syria, Persia to Indus River Valley
Rome began mid 750s BC; Greeks tribes colonized southern Italy, bringing alphabet and religious practices; Etruscans moved south into Italy 700-600 BC; Romans expelled Etruscans around 500 BC; governed by patricians (wealthy land owners); Julius Caeser 110-44B
Roman Empire 60BC - 450 AD; Stoicism philosophy; major law contributions - civil law applied to Roman citizens, law of the people merged Roman laws with laws of other countries, natural law was governed by reason; Diocletian, Constantine; Edict of Milan 313 AD - tole
Byzantine empire mid 400s AD - 14th/15th cent. AD; started from Roman empire; Emperor Justinian; Crusaders; trade routes increased
Silk Road trade route from China to Europe; included silk, spices, pottery, horses; made traveling easier;
Black Plague mid 1300s AD; carried from Asia to Europe by fleas on rats;enhanced by poor living conditions; 25 million people died
Japan feudalism (300-700 AD); warrior clans (late 700 - 1200AD); Shogun/Shugo (1200 - late 1400s AD)
Sub-Saharan Muslim influence mid 1000s AD; Mali people edge of Sahara desert; the Nok lived in Nigeria;
American civilizations Mayan-Central America; Aztec-Mexico; Inca-South America; Woodland and Mississipian(mound people)-North America; Anasazi and Hohokam-SW USA and northern Mexico
Magna Carta 1215AD, limited English monarchy
Crusades late 1000s AD - 1300 AD; seven major crusades;
Where did First universities open Bologna and Salerno Italy, late 1100s AD; used Latin
Joan of Arc 1412-1431 AD; French
Renaissance 1300-1600AD; Venice, Milan, Padua, Pisa, and Florence; writers Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio; art-oil painting, chiaroscuro, linear perspective(3D); da Vinci, Michelangelo, Machiavelli
Martin Luther 1483-1546;German; 95 thesis nailed to church door 10/31/1517 opposing selling indulgences (buying forgiveness)
John Calvin 1509-1564; French; reformer; believed church and state should be united; believed in pre-destination
Mary I 1553-1558 queen of England; Catholic
Elizabeth I 1558-1603 queen of England; Protestant
Henry VIII 1509-1547; king of England; married Catherine of Aragon then Anne Boleyn;
Louis XIII 1610-1643; king of France; Cardinal Richelieu held real power
Ferdinand Magellan 1480-1521; circumnavigated the globe 1521-22
Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492 seeking a new route to the East Indies
Hernando Cortes 1485-1547; Aztec conqueror; from Spain; sent gold to Spain
Francisco Pizarro 1476-1541; conquered Incas; sent gold to Spain
John and Sebastian Cabot late 1400s AD; explored North America
Jacques Cartier 1491-1557; French; explored North America 1534
Samuel de Champlain French; exlored St Lawrence river(NE USA, SE Canada)
Treaty of Paris 1763 1763; French possessions in North America went to Britain
French American Alliance 1778; French troops helped Gen Washington at Yorktown; 1779 Spain also joined with France
Treaty of Paris 1783 Britain recognized the independence of the USA and ceded the Floridas to Spain
Steam engine Thomas Newcomen 1706 invented the steam engine; James Watt 1765-1769 improved the steam engine
Louis XVI 1774-1792 king of France; married Marie Antoinette
Ptolemy 85-160AD; Greek astronomer who thought that the earth was the center of the universe and that everything moved around it.
Nikolai Copernicus 1473-1543; believed the universe was centered around a motionless sun
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630; added to Copernicus' theory about sun-centered universe
Galileo Galilei 1564-1642; invented telescope; mathematician
Enlightenment fostered a belief in the existence of God as a rationale explanation of the universe and its form; God stopped being involved after the universe was created; God was impersonal; supernatural (God, angels, devils) was not involved in human life
Francois Marie Arouet 1694-1778; french, aka Voltaire; social activist during Enlightenment
The empire of Alexander the Great 4th cent. BC n
The Egyptian Empire 11th cent BC
The Roman Empire 1st cent BC northern Africa, Egypt, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey (Mediterranean areas)
Empire of Charlemagne 9th cent AD
Geographical setting of first civilizations of Africa and Asia river valleys where there was an abundance of fertile soil and fresh water
Hinduism most strongly influences these features of ancient Indian civilization relationships among social groups
Kush civilization annual floods enriched land for farming and cattle; timber and iron ore deposits; capital city located on major trade routes; gold and emerald mines made kingdom rich
Rome's influence on later development of what European civilization legal code of France
Major cause of decline of Roman Empire political instability and use of mercenary armies undermined the security of the empire
Samurai tradition of feudal Japan resembled which medieval Europe feature code of chivalry of European kinghts
Catholic church influenced development of what in medieval Europe universities
Geographic factors that influenced the Inca civilization 11th-15th cent. AD mtns of western So. Amer. blocked the building of an empire, prompting the development of sophisticated engineering technologies
Aim of explorations of John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, and Henry Hudson to discover a westward route to Asia
Major motive to establish the colony of Massachusetts Bay to create a Bible commonwealth
Significance of a major military development of the Amer Revolution patriot victory at Battle of Saratoga(1777) prompted France to sign a treaty with the Amer. leaders
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions from Seneca Falls Convention 1848 to link the demands of women to the grievances of the Revolutionary generation
Articles of Confederation primarily to protect the sovereignty of the states
NW USA (Washington, Oregon, Idaho,...) US obtained possession of this area from the British in a treaty from 1846
Major advantage of the Union and the Confederacy at the start of the Civil War Union - stronger manufacturing base; Confederacy - more experienced officer corps
Reason for abandonment of Radical Republican plans for Reconstruction the outcome of the 1876 presidential election
Responsible for development of a national market in the US in the late 19th cent? expansion of the railroad and the telegraph network
The mission's, presidio's, and the pueblo's function in early Calif history? to maintain social order
Just before European colonization, most of Calif.'s American Indians were... hunting and gathering societies in which people fished, hunted, and harvest wild plants
An important development in Calif society during the era of Mexican rule (1821-1848) was... growing criticism of the mission system prompted efforts to transfer mission holdings into private hands
Cause of Mexican War 1840s a boundary dispute between the US and Mexico; resulted in California becoming a territory of the US
Substantial increase in the Asian population of Calif came because of... Immigration Reform Act of 1965
Latino political power increased in Calif. in the 1990s because... the growing proportion of Latinos in the Calif population
A principle of the Calif Constitution popular sovereignty (All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their protection, security, and beneift, and they have the right to alter or reform it when the public good may require
Major historical turning point in Calif industry Aircraft industry and WW II
identify three effects (social, economic, political, cultural) of this migration on California; select one of the effects you have identified; and explain how the effect of the migration you have selected helped shape modern California society. In the 1930s, approximately 300,000 people migrated from the southern plains region of the United States to California.
Created by: nuttyandplain