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Classic Findings

Classic findings for USMLE review

Actinic keratosis Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Addison's Disease Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Albright's syndrome Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls
Albuminocytologic dissociation Guillain-Barré (↑ protein in CSF with only modest ↑ in cell count)
Alport's syndrome Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Anti-basement membrane Goodpasture's syndrome
Anticentromere antibodies Scleroderma (CREST)
Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies) SLE (type 3 hypersensitivity)
Anti-epithelial cell Pemphigus vulgaris
Antigliadin antibodies Celiac disease
Antihistone antibodies Drug induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodies Rheumatoid arthritis
Antimitochondrial antibodies 1° biliary cirrhosis
Antineutrophil antibodies Vasculitis
Antiplatelet antibodies Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly Marfan's syndrome
Argyll Robertson pupil Neurosyphilis
Arnold-Chiari malformation Cerebellar tonsil herniation
Aschoff bodies Rheumatic fever
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies Wernicke's encephalopathy
Auer rodes Acute myelogenous leukemia (especially the promyelocytic type)
Autosplenectomy Sickle cell anemia
Babinski's sign UMN lesion
Baker's cyst in popliteal fossa Rheumatoid arthritis
"Bamboo spine" on x-ray Ankylosing spondylitis
Bartter's syndrome Hyperreninemia
Basophilic stippling of RBCs Lead poisoning
Becker's muscular dystrophy Defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne's
Bell's palsy LMN CN VII plasy
Bence Jones proteins Mulitple myeloma (kappa or lambda kight chains in urine), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Berger's disease IgA nephropathy
Bernard-Soulier disease Defect in platelet adhesion
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis Sarcoidosis
Birbeck granules on EM Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Bloody tap on LP subarachnoid hemorrhage
"Blue bloater" Chronic bronchitis
Blue-domed cysts Fibrocystic change of the breast
Blue sclera Osteogenesis imperfecta
Boot-shaped heart on x-ray Tetrology of Fallot; RVH
Bouchard's nodes Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Boutonniere's deformity Rheumatoid arthritis
Branching rods in oral infection Actinomyces israelii
"Brown tumor" of bone Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Brushfield's spots Down syndrome
Bruton's disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia
Budd-Chiari syndrome Posthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger's disease Small/medium-artery vasculitis
Burkitt's lymphoma 8:14 translocation; associated with EBV
Burton's lines Lead poisoning
C-ANCA, P-ANCA Wegener's granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa
Café-au-lait spots Neurofibromatosis
Caisson disease Gas emboli
Calf pseudohypertrophy Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Call-Exner bodies Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy Chagas' disease
Cerebriform nuclei Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Chagas' disease Trypanosome infection
Chancre 1° syphilis (not painful)
Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi (painful)
Charcot's triad Multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech); cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)
Charcot-Leyden crystals Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Chédiak-Higashi disease Phagocyte deficiency
Cherry-red spot on macula Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick disease, central retinal artery occlusion
Cheyne-Stokes respirations Central apnea in CHF and increased cranial pressure
"Chocolate cysts" Endometriosis (frequntly involves both ovaries)
Chronic atrophic gastritis Predisposition to gastric carcinoma
Chvostek's sign Hypocalcemia (fascial muscle spasm upon tapping)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina DES exposure in utero
Clue cells Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman's triangle on x-ray Osteosarcoma
Cold agglutinins Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis
Cold intolerance Hypothyroidism
Condylomata lata Secondary syphilis
Continuous machinery murmur Patent ductus arteriosus
Cori's disease Debranching enzyme deficiency
Cotton-wool spots Chronic hypertension
Cough, conjunctivitis, coryza + fever Measles
Councilman bodies Toxic or viral hepatitis
Cowdry type A bodies Herpesvirus
Crescents in Bowman's capsule Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Crigler-Najjar syndrome Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Curling's ulcer Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Current-jelly sputum Klebsiella
Curschmann's spirals Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Cushing's ulcer Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
D-dimers DIC
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra Parkinson's diease (basal ganglia disorder - rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
Diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + lesions of skull Hand-Schuller-Christian diease
Dog or cat bite Pasteurella multocida
Donovan bodies Granuloma inguinate
Dressler's syndrome Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
Dubin-Johnson syndrome Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy Deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive)
Eburnation Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bones)
Edward's syndrome Trisomy 18 associated with rocker-bottom feet, low-set ears, heart disease
Eisenmenger's complex Late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L --> R shunt becomes R --> L shunt)
Elastic skin Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Erb-Duchenne palsy Superior trunk brachial plexus injury ("waiter's tip")
Erythema chronicum migrans Lyme disease
Fanconi's syndrome Proximal tubule reasbsorption defect
"Fat, female, forty, and fertile" Acute cholecystitis
Fatty liver Alcoholism
Ferruginous bodies Asbestosis
Gardner's syndrome Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gaucher's disease Glucocerebrosidase deficiency
Ghon focus 1° TB
Gilbert's syndrome Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia Defect in platelet aggregation
Goodpasture's syndrome Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Gowers' maneuver Duchenne's (use of pt arms to help legs pick self up off floor)
Guillain-Barré syndrome Idiopathic polyneuritis
"Hair-on-end" appearance on x-ray β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease Chronic progressive histiocytosis
HbS Sickle cell anemia
hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma, hydatiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heberden's nodes Osteoarthritis (DIP swelling 2° to osteoarthritis)
Heinz bodies G6PD deficiency
Henoch-Schonlein purpura Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs
Heterophil antibodies Infectious Mononucleosis (EBV)
HbF Thalassemia major
High-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) Wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B₁ deficiency)
HLA-B27 Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis
HLA-DR3 or -DR4 Diabetes mellitus type 1 (autoimmune destruction of β cells)
Homer Wright rosettes Neuroblastoma
Honeycomb lung on x-ray Interstitial fibrosis
Horner's syndrome Ptosis, miosis, and anhydrosis
Howell-Jolly bodies Splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen
Huntington's disease Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)
Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility Kluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)
Hyperpigmentation of the skin 1° adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
Hypersegmented neutrophils Macrocytic anemia
Hypertension + hypokalemia Conn's syndrome
Hypochromic microcytosis Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning
Increased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levels Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intussesception Adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's pathches)
Janeway lesions Endocarditis
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction Syphilis - overaggressive treatment of asymptomatic pt that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis
Job's syndrome Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Karposi's sarcoma AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)
Kartagener's syndrome Dynein defect
Kayser-Fleischer rings Wilson's disease
Keratin pearls Squamous cell carcinoma
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules Diabetic neuropathy
Klüver-Bucy syndrome Bilateral amygdala lesions
Koilocytes HPV
Koplik spots Measels
Krukenberg tumor Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Kussmaul hyperpnea Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin deficit)
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome HGPRT deficiency
Lewy bodies Parkinson's disease
Libman-Sacks disease Endocarditis associated with SLE
Lines of Zahn Aterial thrombus
Lisch nodules Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Low serum ceruloplasmin Wilson's disease
Lucid interval Epidural hematoma
"Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence Poststreptoccocal glomerulonephritis
Lytic bone lesions on x-ray Multiple myeloma
Mallory bodies Alcoholic liver disease
Mallory-Weiss syndrome Esophagogastric lacerations
McArdle's disease Muscle phosphorylase deficiency
McBurney's sign Appendicitis
MLF syndrome (INO) Multiple sclerosis
Monoclonal antibody spike Multiple myeloma (called the M protein, usually IgG or IgA), MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance), Waldenstrom's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
Myxedema Hypothyroidism
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis Wegener's and Goodpasture's (hemoptysis and glomerular disease)
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals Gout
Negri bodies Rabies
Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss Alport's syndrome
Neurofibrillary tangles Alzheimer's disease
Niemann-Pick disease Sphingomyelinase deficiency
No lacation postpartum Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction)
Nutmeg liver CHF
Occupational exposure to asbestos Malignant mesothelioma
"Orphan Annie" nuclei Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Osler's nodes Endocarditis
Owl's eye CMV
Painless jaundice Pancreatic cancer (head)
Palpable purpura on legs and buttocks Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Pancoast's tumor Bronchogenic apical tumor associated with Horner's syndrome
Pannus Rheumatoid arthritis
Parkinson's disease Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
Periosteal elevation on x-ray Pyogenic osteomyelitis
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome Benign polyposis
Peyronie's disease Penile fibrosis
Philadelphia chromosome (bcr-abl) CML (may sometime be associated with AML)
Pick bodies Pick's disease
Pick's disease Progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's
"Pink puffer" Emphysema (centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [α₁-antitrypsin defiency])
Plummer-Vinson syndrome Esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia
Podagra Gout (MP joint of hallux)
Podocyte fusion Minimal change disease
Polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and edema Dry beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B₁ deficiency)
Polyneuropathy preceded by GI or respiratory infection Guillain-Barré syndrome
Pompe's disease Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency associated with cardiomegaly
Port-wine stain Hemangioma
Positive anterior "drawer sign" Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Pott's disease Vertebral TB
Pseudopalidase tumor cell arrangement Glioblastoma multiforme
Pseudorosettes Ewing's sarcoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis Horner's syndrome (Pancoast's tumor)
Rash on palms and soles 2° syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
RBC casts in urine Acute glomerulonephritis
Recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and S. aureus infections Cystic fibrosis
Red urine in the morning Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg cells Hodgkin's lymphoma
Increased Reid index Chronic bronchitis
Reinke crystals Leydig cell tumor
Reiter's syndrome Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomas von Hippel-Lindau disease
Renal epithelial casts in urine Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent Pseudogout
Rib notching Coarctation of aorta
Roth's spots on retina Endocarditis
Rotor's syndrome Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rouleaux formation (RBCs) Multiple myeloma
Russell bodies Multiple myeloma
S3 Left to right shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurgitation, LV failure (CHF)
S4 Aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Schillar-Duval bodies Yolk sac tumor
Senile plaques Alzheimer's disease
Sézary syndrome Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Sheehan's syndrome Postpartum pituitary necrosis
Shwartzman reaction Neisseria meningitidis
Signet ring cells Gastric carcinoma
Simian crease Down syndrome
Sipple's syndrome MEN type IIa
Sjögren's syndrome Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Skip lesions Crohn's disease
"Slapped cheek" Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
Smith antigen SLE
"Smudge cell" CLL
Soap bubble on x-ray Giant cell tumor of bone
Spike and dome on EM Membranous glomerulonephritis
Spitz nevus Benign juvenile melanoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails Endocarditis
Starry sky pattern Burkitt's lymphoma
"Strawberry" tongue Scarlet fever
Streaky ovaries Turner's syndrome
String sign on x-ray Crohn's disease
Subepithelial humps on EM Postreptoccocal glomerulonephritis
Suboccipital lymphadenopathy Rubella
Sulfur granules Actinomyces israelii
Swollen gums, bruising, poor wound healing, anemia Scurvy (ascorbic acid, vit C deficiency) - vit C is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo - decrescendo) Aortic valve stenosis
t(8;14) Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
Tabes dorsalis 3° syphilis
Tendon xanthomas (classically Achilles) Familial hypercholesterolemia
Thumb sign on lateral x-ray Epiglottitis (H influenzae)
Thyroidization of kidney Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
Tophi Gout
"Tram track" appearance on LM Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Trousseau's sign Visceral cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
Virchow's node Left supraclavicular node enlargement from metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Virchow's triad Pulmonary embolism (blood stasis, endothelial damage, hypercoagulation)
von Recklinghausen's disease Neurofibromatosis with cafe-au-lait spots
von Recklinghausen's disease of the bone Osteitis fibrosa cystica ("brown tumor")
Wallenberg's syndrome PICA thrombosis
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Adrenal hemorrhage associated with meningococcemia
Waxy casts Chronic end-stage renal disease
WBC casts in urine Acute pyelonephritis
WBCs in urine Acute cystitis
Wermer's syndrome MEN type 1
Whipple's disease Malabsorption syndrome caused by Tropheryma whippelii
Wilson's disease Hepatolenticular degeneration
"Wire loop" appearance on LM Lupus nephropathy
Xanthochromia (CSF) Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Xerostomia + arthritis + keratoconjunctivitis sicca Sjögren's syndrome
Zenker's diverticulum Upper GI diverticulum
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Gastrin-secreting tumor associated with ulcers
Created by: golfspy