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Basic Immunology

Immunoglobulins, T-cells, Hypersensitivity Reactions

IgM The first antibody produced in response to an antigen. Fixes complement. Does not cross the placenta.
IgG The primary antibody in the secondary response (second-exposure). Opsonizes (coats) bacteria, fixes complement, thereby destroying the bacteria. Crosses the placenta.
IgA Found in mucosal secretions (upper respiratory tract, genitourinary tract). Engages pathogens outside the body. Aggregated form activates the alternative pathway of complement activation only.
IgE Mediates Type I hypersensitivity reaction by binding to antigens and the surface of mast cells and basophils, stimulating the release of histamine. Levels often elevated in helminth infections.
IgD Membrane IgD is part of the functional B cell receptor on mature B cells.
Type I hypersensitivity reaction Results from IgE-mediated release of inflammatory molecules such as histamine from mast cells and basophils, can manifest as an asthma attack, a local wheal-and-flare, or anaphylaxis.
Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction Antibody and complement mediated, is cytotoxic in nature and occurs in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Graves' disease, and myasthenia gravis.
Type 3 hypersensitivity reaction Caused by immune complex deposition and subsequent complement activation, may be a complication of IV administration of antigenic medications (penicillin).
Type 4 hypersensitivity reaction Cell mediated, results in a delayed (24 to 48 hour) response. It is mediated by T cells. Examples include transplant rejection, TB skin test, and contact dermatitis (poison ivy).
Tc cells (cytotoxic cells) Executors of the cell-mediated arm of the acquired immune system.
Th cells (T-helper cells) Coordinators of the acquired immune system. They decide whether to attack an invader with a predominantly cell-mediated or humoral (antibody-mediated) attack.
Th1 cells Stimulate the cell-mediated arm of the acquired immune system by secreting IL-2 and λ-interferon, which stimulate the action of macrophages and Tc cells.
Th2 cells Stimulate the humoral (antibody-mediated) arm of the acquired immune system by secreting IL-4 and IL-5, which stimulate B cells to make antibodies.
Created by: golfspy