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Cornelison C1

Cornelison - Chapter 1 Vocabulary

GEOMETRY the branch of mathematics that is concerned with the properties and relationships of points, lines, angles, curves, surfaces, and solids; it literally means “to measure the earth”
POSTULATE or AXIOM a set of universally accepted statements
DEDUCTIVE REASONING or LOGICAL REASONING the process of demonstrating that if certain statements are accepted as true, then other statements can be shown to follow from them
THEOREM a statement that has been proved
COMPASS an instrument used to draw circles
INDUCTIVE REASONING the process of observing data, recognizing patterns, and making generalizations from the observations
CONJECTURE the generalization a mathematician makes when using inductive reasoning
COUNTEREXAMPLE a case that proves the conjecture wrong
POINT, LINE, AND PLANE the three undefined terms in geometry
COLLINEAR points that lie on the same line
COPLANAR points and lines that lie in the same plane
RAY part of a line that consists of a point (initial point) and all the points in one direction
OPPOSITE RAYS two rays that are part of the same line, have the same initial point, and go in opposite directions
LINE SEGMENT part of a line that consists of two points (endpoints) and all the points between them that lie on the line containing the two points
MIDPOINT the point in the middle of the segment
ANGLE two rays that share a common endpoint, provided the two rays do not lie on the same line
VERTEX the common endpoint of the two rays that form an angle
ANGLE BISECTOR a ray (or segment) that has an endpoint on the vertex of the angle and that divides the angle into two adjacent, congruent angles
COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES two angles whose measures add to 90 degrees
SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES two angles whose measures add to 180 degrees
ADJACENT ANGLES two angles in the same plane that have a common side, a common vertex, but no common interior points
LINEAR PAIR two adjacent angles whose noncommon sides form opposite rays
VERTICAL ANGLES two nonadjacent angles formed by intersecting lines
SEGMENT BISECTOR a line that passes through the midpoint of a segment
CIRCUMFERENCE the distance around a circle
AREA the measure of the region enclosed by a plane figure
PERIMETER the distance around a polygon
CONDITIONAL STATEMENT a statement written in “if-then” form
HYPOTHESIS the “if” part of a conditional
CONCLUSION the “then” part of a conditional
PERPENDICULAR LINES coplanar lines that never intersect
CONVERSE the statement formed by switching the hypothesis and conclusion of a conditional statement
BICONDITIONAL STATEMENT a statement that contains the phrase “if and only if”
Created by: bcornelison