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Vitamin & Minerals

Nursing Requirements, Source, Excess, Deficiency

QuestionAnswer
Vitamin A (retinol) Functions fat soluable - essential for skeletal growth, normal mucosal epitheleium and visual activity. Preformed-retinol, provitamin/precursor beta carotene.
Vitamin D (calciferol)Functions fat soluable - essential for normal formation of bones and teeth. absorbtion of calcium and phosphorus in GI track.
Vitamin E (tocopherol)Functions fat soluable. essential for normal reproduction, muscle development and resistance of red blood cell breakdown. Antioxidant, production of heme, protection of vitamins A and C. Protects cell membrane, lungs, immune system enhancement.
Vitamin K Functions fat soluable. essesntial prothrombin formation, blood clotting
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Functions (7) water soluable. wound, burn and fracture healing, antioxidant, supports immune system, formation of collagen. assists in absorption of iron. may play a role in heart disease.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Functions water soluble. need by nerves and muscle cells, supports appetite. component of enzymes
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)Functions water soluble. supports vision and skin. metabolism of nutrients
Vitamin B3(Niacin)Functions water soluble. supports health of skin, digestive and nervous system, may lower cholesterol.metabolism of nutrients
Vitamin B6(pyridoxine)Functions water soluble. conversion of tryptophan to niacin. formation of hemoglobin and neurotransmitters. regulates blood glucose. promotes immune funcitons, hemsythesis of amino acids, lowers homocystein which is linked to heart disease.
Vitamin B12(cobalmin)Functions water soluble. coenzyme in fatty acid metabolism, function of cells in bone
Folic Acid Functions water soluble. metabolism of amino acids, maturation of RBC's, new cell formation.
Folic Acid Deficiency macrocytic anemia, occurs in pregancy neural tube defects. Alchol decreases absorption.
Folic Acid Sources liver, meat, green leafy veg, fish , whole grains
Vitamin B12 Deficiency pernicious and macrocytic anemia, neuro disorders, progressive paralysis
Vitamin B12 Sources animal only. milk, eggs, cheese, meat, poultry
Vitamin B6 Deficiency microcytic anemia, dermatitis,GI upset, irritability, weakness, nervousness, skin lesions
Vitamin B6 Sources meat, fish, poultry, protien foods
Vitamin B6 Excess toxciity - peripheral nerve damage. Sensory loss, numbness, ataxia
Vitamin B3 Deficiency pellagra (dermatitis), diarrhea, anorexia, lassitude, indigestion, dementia, death
Vitamin B3 Sources protein, dairy, fish, eggs, mushrooms, cereals
Vitamin B3 Excess toxicty = painful flush and liver damage. reverses antiparkinsons effect of levidopa, loss of sensations, numbness
Vitamin B2 Excess ulcer, elevated blood glucose
Vitamin B2 Source milk, dairy, riboflavin sensitivite to light = reason milk in opqque of covered
Vitamin B2 Deficiency rash, sensitivity to light,scaly skin, cracking mouth, eye irritation, photophobia
Vitamin B1 Sources pork, legunes, grains, wheat germ, oats
Vitamin B1 Excess Tachycardia, headaches, irritability
Vitamin B1 Deficiency alcoholics, fasting (empty calories)Beriberi, polyneuritis, mental confusion, muscle weakness, irritablity, confusion, memory loss
Vitamin A Source preformed: animal- liver and fish, dairy products (whole milk), grean leafy veg, yellow or bright orange fruit and veg, milk, cheese butter,eggs, oils.
Vitamin A Deficiency causes night blindness, rough scaly skin, dry mucous membranes, decreased immune response
Vitamin A Excess causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hair loss, headache, carotenemia. Excessive from preformed not beta carotene. Increased need for children with measles especially 3rd world.
Vitamin D Deficiency rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults (softness of bones)
Vitamin D Excess toxcitiy = most toxic of vitamins. causes calcium deposits in soft tissues, forms stones, vomiting, diarrhea, growth failure, kidney stones
Vitamin D Sources sunlight, fortified dairy, fish - salmon and shrimp.
Vitamin E Sources Vegetable oils, green leafy veg, milk, eggs, meats
Vitamin E Excess toxicity - in excess of 400 units/day. interferes with blood clotting, prolonged prothrombin time, intestinal irritability
Vitamin E Deficiency rare increased hemolysis of RBC's, macrocytic anemia in infants
Vitamin K Deficiency rare but possible, if on antibotics (kills intestionlorg) hemorrhagic diseases of the newborn, prolonged clotting time in adults
Vitamin K Excess toxicity - rare, interfers with anticloting meds. hyperbilirubinemia in infants, vomiting in adults
Vitamin K Sources Green leafy veg,liver,milk,eggs
Vitamin C Excess causes kidney stones, UTI, counteract anticogulant drugs, iron overload. Toxicity >2000mg abdonminal cramps, nausea, diarrhea
Vitamin C Deficiency Scurvy, poor wound healing, bleeding gums, bruising, bone fragility and softening, joint pain. Increasd need due to stress, smoking, infection, burns/trauma, surgery
Vitamin C Sources citrus, potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, broccoli, strawberries
Vitamin K Functions Fat Soluable. Essential for blood clooting. Conditions may enhance need.
Vitamin C Functions Water Soluable. Antioxidant, collagen formation, wound healing, strong capilaries - prevent brusing, supports immune system (resists infection) assists in absorption of iron, may play role in heart diesease.
Phosphorus (P) Functions major mineral. 85% in bones and teeth w/ calcium, RNA-DNA = all growth, energy transfer, buffer system, acid-base balance) essential metabolism of protien.
Phosphorus Sources animal protiens, grains, soft drinks, processed foods.
Phosphorus Deficiency unknown
Phosphorus Excess increased execretion of calcium
Fat Soluable Vitamins Vitamins that are mostly absorbed by other lipids. They can accumulate in the body causing toxicty or hypervitaminosis. The are not normally excreated in the urine
Hypervitaminosis An adnormal conidtion resulting from excessive intake of toxic amounts of one or more vitamins, especially of a long period of time.
Hypovitaminosis A condition that occurs because of a deficiency of one or more vitamins.
Water Soluable Vitamins Are componenets of essential enzyme systems. The body will use what it needs and then flush the rest typically through urine.
Minerals Inorganic substances occuring naturally in the earths crust that the body needs to help build and maintain body tissues for life functions. They are divided into major and trace elements.
Major Minerals those mineral requiring intake of more than 100mg/day
Trace Elements minerals that occure in very small amounts in the body and require less than 100mg/day intake
Iron (Fe)Function trace mineral. essesntial for the synthesis of hemoglobin and myglobin, plays a major role in the transfer of oxgen to body tissues.
Iron Deficiency due to blood loss, poor intake. Symptoms fatigue, pallor, apathy, poor tolerance to cold, pica, (woman fo child bearing age, low income, adolescense) Decreased absorption with gastric acid, high intake of plant fiber, tea or coffee.
Iron Excess Iron overload = hemochomolias) gentic risk, alcholo abuse, damage to digestive track.
Iron Sources animal protein. Increased absorption with vitamin c.
Fluroide (F)Function tace mineral. helps prevent tooth decay, ostporosis and gum disease
Fluroide Sources fish, tea, drink water
Fluroide Excess mottled teeth
Potassium (K+)Function major mineral. major electrolyte helps regulate neuromuscular excitability and muscle contraction. Inside body cells. Keeps heart beat steady. May prevent of correct high BP.
Potassium Excess Toxicity from nonfood supplements, can stop heartbeat
Potassium Deficiency from excessive losses, vomiting, diareha, diuretics, muscle weakness, heart failure.
Potassium Sources fruits, veggies, bananas, oranges
Calcium (Ca)Function major mineral.the most abundant mineral in the body is present mainly in the bones and is required for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractions, blood coagulation, and cardiac functions. Daily requirements 800-1200mg.
Calcium Sources Absorption enchanced by vit D, acid, lactose. Diary fortfied, OJ, almonds, canned fish, greens.
Calcium Deficiency Osteoporosis, absorbition decreased by plant fbers. Excretion maybe increased by excess protien and sodium.
Sodium (Na)Function major mineral.involved in acid base balance, water balance, transimission of nerve impulses and contraction of muscle.
Sodium Deficiency unlikely, no RDA
Sodium Excess hypertension
Sodium Sources salt, milk, veg, processed foods, snacks, pickles, and olives
Magnesium (Mg) Function major mineral.important to the function of may enzyme systems, helps build strong bones and teeth and regulates heartbeat. Helps relax muscles after contractions, utilized for seizures and constipation.
Magnesium Deficiency Vomiting, diarrhea, alcohol abuse, protien malnutriention, severe tetany (painful muscle contraction). Hallucinations during alcohol w/drawl. Deficiency common in US. Intake w/heart disease
Magnesium Source dark green, leafy veg, nuts and seeds, seafood, wholegrains, hardwater, chocolate.
Copper (Cu)Function trace mineral. is a component of serveral enzymes and is essential to good health. aids in absorption and use of iron. High intake of vit c can interfere with copper absorption. Elevated in some cancers.
Copper Source whole grains, seafood, nuts/seeds
Zinc (Zn) Function trace mineral.essential for several enzymes, growth, glucose tolerance, wound healing and tast acuity.
Zinc Source shellfish, meat, milk, eggs
Zinc Excess vomiting, diarhea, fever, exhaustion, copper deficiency, death
Chromium Function trace mineral.works with insulin to hormalize BS. used to lower cholesterol.
Chromium Dificiency impaired glucose tolerance, elevated BS, coronary atery disease. Toxicity - ulcers, kidney and liver damage
Chromium Source oysters, meats, whole grains, cheese, unprocessed foods, yeast
Iodine (I) Function trace mineral. micronutrient of the thyroid hormone, metabolic rate.
Iodine Deficiency goter, enlarged thyroid gland, sluggishness, weight gain, in pregancy may cause mental and physical retardation
Iodine Source Seafood, iodized salt
Selenium Function Works with Vit E to protect cells from oxidation. protects liver heart agaisnt some tumor formation
Selenium Deficiency associated with heart diesease and cancers. liver and pancrease, high cholesteral
Selenium Source low fat meat and shellfish, vegs, grains,diary, legumens.
Created by: troutbaron on 2005-10-24



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