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Nervous System WL

Words And Meanings

Afferent Nerves Also known as sensory nerves; conduct impulses toward the Central Nervous System.
Alzheimer's Disease Progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology, charecterized by memory loss; impaired judgment, impaired orientation.
Anaesthesia Without feeling; loss of sensation.
Analgesics Agents that relieve pain by inhibiting the passage of pain impulses.
ANS Autonomic Nervous System - one of the two parts of the Peripheral Nervous System which conveys impulses to glands, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles (involuntary functions).
Anticonvulsants Medications which are seizure suppressants.
Antidepressants Medications used to alleviate mental depression.
Aphasia Inability to speak.
Arachnoid Membrane Middle layer covering the brain, between the dura mater and pia mater.
Astrocytes Star-shaped neuroglia, which forms the blood-brain barrier, allowing only small molecules to be transferred from the blood to the brain.
Ataxia Irregularity of movement due to defective muscle control. Lack of muscle coordination.
Axon A long, single projection that transmits impulses from the cell body.
Bell's Palsy Facial paralysis due to 7th cranial nerve disorder.
Brainstem Major section of the brain that serves as a pathway for impulse conduction between the brain and the spinal cord; made up of medulla, pons and midbrain.
Catatonic Stuporous or unresponsiveness; inability to move or talk.
Cerebellum Second largest part of the brain; occupies the back of the brain; refines the movement when the cerebrum initiates muscular movement; aids in maintaining equilibrium. Motor, sensory and association.
Cerebrum Largest and uppermost portion of the brain whose major functions include sensory perception and interpretation, muscular movement, and emotional aspects of behaviour and memory.
Cisternal Puncture A spinal puncture at the base of the brain to extract spinal fluid or inject medication.
CNS Central Nervous System - includes the brain and spinal cord.
Coma Abnormal, deep unconsciousness with absence of voluntary responses to stimuli.
Concussion Injury resulting from impact of the brain with an object. Transient loss off deep consciousness.
Convulsion Onset of involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations.
CP Cerebral Palsy - a disease involving dysfunction of the cerebrum which is involved with sensory perception, muscular movement, and emotional aspects of memory and behaviour.
Craniotomy Incision into the skull.
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid
CT Scan Computerized Tomography Scan-a radiographic examination which demonstrates the area in segments of depth; with computer-generated results
Dendrites Branching cytoplasmic projections that receive impulses and transmit them to the cell body
Dura mater Outermost membrane covering the brain and spinal cord
Dysrhythmia Abnormal rhythm, such as electrical disturbances in the brain.
Dystrophy Poor development.
EEG Electroencephalogram-record of the patterns of brain activity
Efferent nerves Also known as motor nerves; conduct impulses away from the Central Nervous System.
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
Epilepsy A recurrent disorder of cerebral functions characterized by seizures/convulsions.
ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy
Ganglion A collection of nerve bodies. Mass of cell bodies, network of nerves
Ganglionectomy Excision of a ganglion
Grand Mal Seizure Serious form of epileptic seizure, characterized by sudden loss of consciousness and violent spasms.
Hemiplegia Paralysis of half of the body-one side
Hydrocephalus Increase of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain.
Hyperkinesia Excesive movement.
Idiopathic Occuring without a known cause.
Lethargy Sluggishness-lack of response
LP Lumbar Puncture-removes CSF from between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae. Needle puncture of spinal cavity.
Meninges Three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord: dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater.
Meningocele Congenital hernia/protrusion of meninges through an opening in the skull or spinal column.
Microcephaly Abnormally small head.
Mixed Nerves Nerves composed of both sensory and motor nerves.
Motor Nerve A nerve that conducts impulses away from the Central Nervous System. Message sent from the brain.
Multiple Sclerosis A progressive, degenerative disease of the myelin sheath, striking young adults aged 20-40; signs and symptoms include tremors, muscle weakness, and slowness of movement.
Myelalgia Pain in the spinal cord/bone marrow.
Myelin White fat-like sheath that covers many axons in the Peripheral Nervous System and the Central Nervous System.
Myelography Radiography of the spinal cord after injection of dye.
Nerve A large bundle of axons wrapped in connective tissue.
Nerve Block Induction of regional anaesthesia causing loss of sensation.
Neuroglia Nerve glue.
Neurolysis Surgical freeing of a nerve from an adhesion.
Neuron A nerve cell; the functional cell of the nervous system; is responsible for impulse conduction.
Neurotransmitters Chemical substances that facilitate the transmission of impulses across synapses.
Opiates Stupor or sleep-inducing (narcotic) drugs, containing opium.
Paraplegia Paralysis of trunk and both legs.
Parasympathetic Nervous System Part of the Autonomic Nervous System. Reverses effects of sympathetic system on the body (eg. slows the heart rate).
Petit Mal Seizure Mild epileptic seizure (10-30 seconds in duration); consisting of momentary change in level of consciousness.
Pia mater Innermost membrane covering the brain and spinal cord.
PNS Peripheral Nervous System-includes all nervous tissue of the body found outside the Central Nervous System.
Quadriplegia Paralysis of the trunk and all four extremities.
Sedative Medication that depresses CNS activity; has a calming effect.
Sensory Nerve A nerve that receives impulses from sense organs. Messages sent to the brain.
SNS Somatic Nervous System-one of the two parts of the Peripheral Nervous System which conveys impulses for voluntary functions.
Spina Bifida A congenital defect in the spinal column through which the spinal cord and meninges may protrude; usually occurs in the lumbar region.
Sympathetic Nervous System Part of the Autonomic Nervous System. When in use may cause symptoms such as an accelerated heart rate and increased blood pressure.
Spinal Cord Conveys sensory impulses to the brain from different parts of the body and also transmits motor impulses away from the brain to all muscles and organs.
Synapse A small space found between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another. The space between two neurons.
Syncope Fainting
Tay-Sach's Disease Genetic enzyme deficiency;characterized by progressive mental challenges, paralysis, blindness, inability to eat, and ultimately to death by age of 4 years.
Tics Involuntary, spasmodic muscular contractions, usually of the face and neck.
Tranquilizers Medications used to reduce tension and anxiety without decreasing level of consciousness.
Tremor Involuntary tremble or shake.
Ventricles Spaces located in the inner portion of the brain that contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Trepination Circular opening made in skull to relieve Intracranial Pressure (ICP).
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) Mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the bloodstream from entering the brain.
Myelpathy Any disease of the spinal cord.
Created by: Goldilocks