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Kidney - questions


Which of these is a transcellular fluid? A)plasma B)lymph C)interstitial D)synovial answer:d Transcellular fluid is fluid that is located within areas separated from others by epithelial or other membranes, such as synovial or the aqueous humor of the eye.
Which of these is not a transcellular fluid? a)interstitial fluid B)vitreous humor C)peritoneal fluid D)mucus A) Any fluid outside of cells is considered extracellular, such as interstitial fluid between cells, but some of these such as serous fluid are transcellular.
Which of these is relatively high in extracellular fluids? A)potassium B)calcium C)phosphate D)sodium D) Because of selective membrane permeability, the concentrations of ions such as K+ are higher inside cells than Na+.
What is the main force that causes fluid to leave the plasma compartment? A)osmosis B)hydrostatic pressure C)dialysis D)filtration A) Since the hydrostatic pressure component of blood pressure is always slightly higher than the plasma osmotic pressure, some water is constantly lost from the capillaries.
How is the excess tissue fluid mainly returned to the blood? a)hydrostatic forces B)through the capillaries C)lymphatic vessels D)tissue osmosis c) The lymphatic system is a one-way network of vessels that captures the lost fluids around the cells and returns them to the subclavian veins.
About _____% of the total daily intake of water is derived from internal cell metabolism. A)33 B)10 C)80 D)60 b) About 10% of daily water is an end product of cellular respiration as metabolic water; about 60% is obtained from drinking.
What is the greatest regulator of water intake? A)renal function B)gastrointestinal system C)adequate diet D)hypothalamus d) Thirst is the greatest regulator of water intake and is controlled in all animals by neurological centers in the hypothalamus and limbic system.
As total body water decreases, the _____ of the extracellular fluid increases. A)amount of sodium B)osmotic pressure C)hydrostatic pressure D)protein level b) As fluid is lost, the concentration of particles increases, raising the osmotic pressure.
The greatest amount of body water is lost through _____. Assuming that a person is well and not engaging in strenuous activity, the kidneys are the usual method of excreting excess water.
The main factor that causes the kidney to conserve water is _____. A)ADH B)osmosis C)renin production D)plasma filtration pressure Antidiuretic hormone increases the permeability and absorption of water at the distal convoluted tubules of the nephrons.
ADH is secreted from the _____. Although produced by the hypothalamus, ADH is stored and secreted into the blood from the posterior lobe of the pituitary.
Which of the following would have a diuretic effect? A)eating salty pretzels B)drinking alcohol C)sleeping D)most drugs Alcohol (ethanol) has a profound effect as an anti-ADH agent that greatly increases urine output (diuresis); only some drugs have a diuretic effect.
ADH has a direct effect on _____. A)blood pressure B)water reabsorption C)blood concentration D)all of these d) All body mechanisms are inter-related and affect multiple parameters; it is impossible to alter water levels without having some effect on pressure or concentration.
Excessive vomiting usually results in the phenomenon of _____. Although the fluid lost from the gastrointestinal system is extracellular, fluid will also be lost from the blood because this loss must be replaced.
The symptoms of dehydration result from loss of _____ water. Although the loss may be caused by extracellular changes, the alteration in CNS activity such as confusion and coma, result from direct changes in the intracellular compartment
The effects of water intoxication are usually related to _____. A)blood pressure B)hypoproteinemia C)low sodium D)high potassium c) The hypotonic water causes the concentration of Na+ to fall to levels that are not favorable for normal nerve and muscle conductivity and contraction.
Which of the following favor the development of edema? A)hypoproteinemia B)decreased venous pressure C)decreased capillary permeability D)lymphatic flow A) A drop in blood protein can result in a reduction of the osmotic pressure necessary to move fluids into the capillaries.
Which of these is not a usual cause of hypoproteinemia? A)glomerulonephritis B)poor diet C)diuresis D)liver disease c) Urine output does not normally affect blood protein because the kidneys are only permeable to protein in diseases such as glomerulo-nephritis; the liver synthesizes protein.
What can be a direct cause of ascites? A)hypertension B)hepatic disease C)glomerulonephritis D)renal failure b) Since ascites is excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity, it is usually caused by diseases that affect venous return to the heart such as liver cirrhosis or heart failure.
What causes the edema seen in inflammations? Cell damage initiates the inflammatory reaction which includes the release of vasoactive substances such as histamine which then evoke the increase in tissue fluids.
Which of the following is not true in Addison's disease? A)sodium decreases B)potassium decreases C)adrenal cortex failure D)low aldosterone b) Sodium levels are characteristically lower.
Where are most electrolytes normally lost? Although sweating during strenuous activity can cause a drastic loss of electrolytes, the normal control mechanism is the kidneys.
What is the most abundant extracellular cation? Na+ is actively pumped out of cells by the cell membranes.
Which factor accounts for the ability of the body to conserve high levels of sodium? Aldosterone is the hormone from the adrenal gland which causes the kidneys to reabsorb sodium on demand.
Which ion is usually exchanged for sodium absorption? Aldosterone will cause an increase in the reabsorption of sodium, which drives the membrane pump to eliminate potassium at an even higher rate in the kidneys.
Which cells are most sensitive to electrolyte changes? Nerve and muscle cells are most sensitive to ion changes and must be maintained at stable levels for normal conductivity or contraction.
Which of these is not an effect of parathyroid hormone? A)osteoclast stimulation B)increase in blood Ca2+ C)increase in renal elimination D)increase in intestinal absorption c)PTH causes the kidneys to retain Ca2+; the net effect is to raise blood calcium levels.
Which ion is directly related to calcium homeostasis? A)Mg2+ B)sodium C)phosphate D)chloride c) There are mechanism involving hormones that usually maintain calcium and phosphate at inverse levels.
Hyperparathyroidism usually causes an increase in _____. A)potassium B)calcium C)phosphate D)sodium Hyperparathyroidism causes an increase in PTH which causes calcium to be conserved.
Which of the following does not become involved with maintaining blood calcium balance? A)skeletal muscle B)bone C)kidneys D)intestine A) Although muscle tissue uses Ca2+ in its reactions, as other tissues, it lacks the ability to regulate blood levels.
Which of the following is not related to hypocalcemia? A)vitamin D deficiency B)muscle weakness C)tetany D)cardiac arrhythmia Muscle weakness is usually associated with the cellular imbalance of calcium associated with hypercalcemia.
What is the most important ion, which affects all of the functions of the others? This is the correct answer. A)H+´B)Na+ C)K+ d)phosphate A) The H+ ion or acidity is the most important ion that has the capability of interacting with the other ions; pH balance is essential for proper enzyme functioning.
Which of the following will not produce H+ ions? A) respiration of glucose B) oxidation of fatty acids C) synthesis of phosphoproteins D) oxidation of sulfur amino acids c) Catabolic reactions that involve oxidation usually result in acidic end products; the synthesis of proteins or other substances may not produce H+.
Which of these is not associated with acidity? a) H3PO4 B) lactic C) ketone D) glucose d) Glucose will not produce an acidic solution, but lactic acid, some ketones, and phosphoric acid will produce H+.
What is a likely cause of hypernatremia? A) high salt in the diet B) kidney failure C) diabetes insipidus D) vomiting c) Actually the amount of salt in the diet alone will not increase blood sodium levels.
Hypokalemia could result from all of these except which one? A) vomiting B) Addison's disease C) Cushing's disease D) renal failure b) Cushing's disease involves an excess of aldosterone while Addison's disease causes a deficiency; potassium is usually lost as sodium is conserved.
Which of the following acts as a base in body fluids? A) H+ B) HCl C) H2CO3 D) HCO3 d) Bicarbonate anions (HCO3-) can bind to H+ in physiologic fluids, making it act as a base.
Which of the following could act as a buffer? A) bicarbonate ion B) H2PO4 C) albumin D) carbonic acid c) Buffers must have two chemicals.
The purpose of a buffer system is to _____. A)prevent pH changes B) increase acidity C) decrease pH D) maintain a pH range d) Buffers contain components that stabilize pH under conditions of added bases or acids within ranges, but do not prevent changes.
In the bicarbonate buffer system, _____ reacts with bases. A) carbon dioxide B) carbonic acid C) bicarbonate ion D) water c) It is the acidic component, carbonic acid, that reacts with added bases to minimize pH changes from the base.
When a strong base reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system, ______ is formed from the base. A) water B) carbon dioxide C) bicarbonate ion D) carbonic acid a) If one were to trace the OH- base in NaOH, it would end up as HOH or water and therefore, now as water, cannot effect pH alteration.
When an acid reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system, ______ is formed as an end product. A)NaCl B) water C) carbonic acid D) bicarbonate ion c) In this buffer reaction, the strong acid has been converted to carbonic acid which effectively lowers the potential to release H+, because it is weak (has a strong H+ bond).
What happens to HCl in the phosphate buffer reaction? A) ionizes B) forms water C) forms H2PO4 D) forms a weak acid and salt d) The HCl reacts to form NaCl and NaH2PO4.
What reacts with excess acids in protein buffers? A) carboxyl group B) amino group C) CO2 D) NH3+ b) The carboxyl group is the acidic portion.
What reacts with the excess bases in protein buffers? A) NH2 B) carbon dioxide C) NH3+ D) carboxyl group c) Both the carboxyl and amino groups could function as acids or bases; NH3+ reacts with OH- to form NH2 and water.
What buffers the addition of hydrogen in blood cells following the uptake of carbon dioxide? A)albumin B) bicarbonate C) hemoglobin D) phosphate c) Bicarbonate is not a significant RBC buffer.
Which factor greatly increases the reaction between carbon dioxide and water? This is the correct answer. A) carbonic anhydrase B) concentration of carbon dioxide C) concentration of bicarbonate D) pH of hemoglobin a) Carbonic anhydrase is the enzyme found in the erythrocyte membrane which increases the reaction more than 100,000 times.
Which of the following is an effect of acidosis? A) increased diuresis B) decreased diuresis C) mental confusion D) seizures c) Alkalosis tends to make neurons more excitable tending towards seizures while acidosis causes CNS depression leading to coma.
Which blood parameter is directly affected by breathing? A) blood pH B) carbon dioxide C) bicarbonate levels D) buffer chemicals b) Breathing directly alters blood levels of carbon dioxide which then leads to changes in pH.
During periods of acidosis, the kidney will secrete _____ into the urine. A)carbon dioxide B) K+ C) H2PO4 D) HPO4 c) HPO4 acts as a base.
In an attempt to remove acid from the blood, the kidneys will secrete _____ into the urine compartment. A) ammonia B) NH4+ C) chloride D) monohydrogen phosphate Ammonium cations (NH4+) were formed from a combination of ammonia and H+.
Which condition is a generalized accumulation of body edematous tissues? A) azotemia B) anuria C) acetonemia D) anasarca d) Anasarca is a descriptive term for generalized edema; anuria is the cessation of urine production and azotemia is an excess of blood nitrogenous wastes.
What is the normal pH of the blood? The buffer systems maintain the pH range of the blood within narrow limits of 7.35-7.45.
What is the pH range compatible with life? Persons cannot survive long with pH values under 6.8 or over 8.0.
Hyperventilation from anxiety usually causes _____. Excess elimination of carbon dioxide causes an increase in pH from the loss of H+.
Lung cancer usually causes the tendency towards _____. respiratory acidosis
Created by: Malekian