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Muscles

QuestionAnswer
Frontalis A: With aponuerosis fixed, raised eyebrows; wrinkles forehead skin horizontally
Occipitalis A: Fixes aponuerosis and pulls scalp posteriorly
Temporalis A: Closes jaw; elevates and retracts mandible; synergist of pterygoids in side-to-side movements; maintains resting position of mandibleO: Temporalis fossaI: Coronoid process of mandible
Zygomaticus Major A: Raises lateral corners of mouth upward (smiling muscle)O: Zygomatic boneI: Skin and muscle at corner of mouth
Zygomaticus Minor A: Raises lateral corners of mouth upward (smiling muscle)
Orbicularis Oris A: Closes mouth; purses and protrudes lips (kissing and whistling muscle)
Orbicularis Oculi A: Various parts can be activated individually; closes eyes, produces blinking, squinting, and draws eyebrows inferiorly; protects eyes from intense light and injury
Masseter A: Closes jaw and elevates mandibleO: Zygomatic arch and maxillaI: Angle and ramus of mandible
Risorius A: Draws corner of lip laterally; tenses lip; synergist of zygomaticus
Buccinator A: Draws corner of mouth laterally; compresses cheek (as in whistling and sucking); holds food between teeth during chewing
Platysma A: Depresses mandible; pulls lower lip back and down (i.e., produces downward sag of the mouth); tenses skin of neck (e.g., during shaving)Note: This is an unpaired muscle
Sternocleidomastoid A: PM of active head flexion; together cause flexion of neck forward (w/ resistance); independently, rotate head toward shoulder on opposite sideO: Manubrium & medial portion of clavicleI: Mastoid process & superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Scalenes A: Flex and slightly rotate neck; elevate ribs 1-2 (aid in inspiration)Note: Comprised of anterior, middle, and posterior muscled
Trapezius A: Extends head;raises/rotates/retracts (adducts) scapula & stabilizes it; superior fibers elevate scapula & inferior depress itO: Occipital bone; ligamentum nuchae; spines of C7 & all T vertebrae I: Acromion & spinous process; lateral 1/3 of clavicle
Latissimus Dorsi A: PM of arm extension; adducts & medially rotates arm; depresses scapula; brings arm down in power strokeO: Indirect at spinous process of lower 6 T vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, last 3-4 ribs, iliac crest I: Floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Levator Scapulae A: Elevates and adducts scapula; with fixed scapula, flexes neck to the same side
Splenius Group A: As a group, extend or hyperextend the head; when only one side is active, head is rotated and bent toward the same sideNote: Has two parts, the splenius capitus and spenius cervicis
Deltoid A: As a whole, PM of arm abduction;antagonist of pec major/lats that adduct arm; when only specific fibers active, can aid in flexion/extension/rotation of humerusO: Lateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion & spine of scapula I: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Erector Spinae A: Prime mover of back extension; extend and bend the vertebral column laterally; provide resistance that helps control action of bending forward at waist and act as powerful extensors to return to erect position; fibers of longissimus also extend head
Quadratus Lumborum A: Each flexes vertebral column laterally; together extend the lumbar spine and fix rib 12; maintains upright posture; assists in forced inspiration
Rhomboid Major A: Pulls scapula medially (retraction); stabilizes the scapula; rotates glenoid cavity downward
Rhomboid Minor A: Pulls scapula medially (retraction); stabilizes the scapula; rotates glenoid cavity downward
Teres Major A: Extends, medially rotates, and adducts humerus; synergist of latissimus dorsi
Teres Minor A: Same as infraspinatous; lateral rotation of humerus; helps hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizes shoulderO: Lateral margin of scapulaI: Greater tubercle of humerus
Rectus Abdominus A: Flexes and rotates vertebral column; increases abdominal pressure; fixes and depresses ribs; stabilizes pelvis during walking; used in sit-ups and curls
Transversus Abdominus A: Compresses abdominal contents
External Oblique A: When pair contracts simultaneously, aid rectus abdominus in flexing vertebral column and in compressing abdominal wall and increasing intra-abdominal pressure; acting individually, aid muscles of back in trunk rotation and lateral flexion
Internal Oblique A: When pair contracts simultaneously, aid rectus abdominus in flexing vertebral column and in compressing abdominal wall and increasing intra-abdominal pressure; acting individually, aid muscles of back in trunk rotation and lateral flexion
External Intercostals A: Pulls ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage; aids in inspiration; synergist of diaphragm
Internal Intercostals A: Draws ribs together to depress rib cage; antagonistic to external intercostals
Subclavius A: Helps stabilize and depress pectoral girdle
Pectoralis Major A: PM of arm flexion; adducts, medially rotates arm; with arm fixed pulls chest upward (acts in forced inspiration)O: Clavicle, sternum, carilage of ribs 1-6, aponeurosis of external obliqueI: By short tendon into intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Pectoralis Minor A: With ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and inferiorly; with scapula fixed draws rib cage superiorly
Serratus Anterior A: Prime mover to protract and hold scapula against chest wall; rotates scapula, causing inferior angle to move laterally and upward; raises point of shoulder; abduction and raising of arm ("boxer's muscle")
Diaphragm A: Prime mover of inspiration flattens on contraction, increasing vertical dimension of thorax; increases intra-abdominal pressure
Supraspinatus A: Assists abduction of humerus; stabilizes shoulder jointO: Supraspinous fossa of scapulaI: Greater tubercle of humerus
Infraspinatus A: Lateral rotation of humerus; helps hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizes shoulder (part of rotator cuff)O: Infraspinous fossa of the scapulaI: Greater tubercle of humerus
Subscapularis A: Chief medial rotator of humerus; assisted by pectoralis major; helps to hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizes shoulder jointO: Subscapular fossa of scapulaI: Lesser tubercule of humerus
Biceps Brachii A: Powerful flexion of elbow and supination of forearm; weak arm flexorO: Short head - coracoid process of scapula; tendon of long head runs in intertubercular sulcus and within capsule of shoulder jointI: Radial tuberosity
Brachialis A: A major flexor of forearmO: Distal portion of anterior humerusI: Coronoid process of ulna
Brachioradialis A: Synergist in foream flexion; during rapid flexion and extension, stabilizes elbow
Coracobrachialis A: Flexion and adduction of the humerus; syntergist of pectoralis major
Triceps Brachii A: Powerful forearm extensor; antagonist of forearm flexorsO: Long head - inferior margin of glenoid cavity; lateral head - posterior humerus; medial head - distal radial groove on posterior humerusI: Olecranon process of ulna
Palmaris Longus A: Flexes wrist (weak); tenses skin and fascia of plam; weak synergist for elbow flexion
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris A: Powerful flexor of wrist; adducts hand in concert with extensor carpi ulnaris; stabilizes wrist during finger extension
Flexor Carpi Radialis A: Powerful flexor of wrist; abducts hand; weak synergist of elbow flexion
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis A: Flexes wrist and middle phalanges of fingers 2-5; the important finger flexor when speed and flexion against resistance are required
Pronator Teres A: Acts synergystically with pronator quadratus to pronate forearm; weak elbow flexor
Supinator A: Assists biceps brachii to forcibly supinate forearm; works alone in slow supination; antagonist of pronator muscles
Extensor Digitorum A: Prime mover of finger extension; extends wrist; can flare (abduct) fingers
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus A: Extends wrist in conjuction with extensor carpi ulnaris; abducts wrist in conjuction with flexor carpi radialis
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris A: Extends wrist in conjuction with extensor carpi radialis; adducts wrist in conjuction with flexor carpi ulnaris
Anconeus A: Abducts ulna during forearm pronation; synergist of triceps brachii in elbow extension
Iliopsoas Two closely related muscles: Iliacus and Psoas Major; prime mover for flexing thigh or for flexing trunk on thigh during a bow
Psoas Major A: Flex trunk on thigh; flex thigh; lateral flexion of vertebral columnO: Transverse processes, bodies, and discs of T12 and lumbar vertebraeI: On and just below lesser trochanter of femur
Iliacus A: Flex trunk on thigh; flex thigh O: Iliac fossa and crest, lateral sacrumI: On and just below lesser trochanter of femur
Rectus Femoris A: Extends knee and flexes thigh at hipO: Anterior inferior iliac spine and superior margin of acetabulumI: Tibial tuberosity and patella
Sartorius A: Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee; helps effect cross-legged position ("tailor's muscle")O: Anterior superior iliac spineI: By an aponeurosis into medial aspect of proximal tibia
Gracilis A: Adducts thigh; flexes and medially rotates leg, especially during walking
Vastus Lateralis A: Extends and stabilizes kneeO: Greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, and linea asperaI: Tibial tuberosity and patella
Vastus Medialis A: Extends knee; stabilizes patellaO: Linea aspera and intertrochanteric lineI: Tibial tuberosity and patella
Vastus Intermedius A: Extends kneeO: Anterior and lateral surface of femurI: Tibial tuberosity and patella
Adductor Longus A: Adduct and medially rotate and flex thigh
Adductor Brevis A: Adduct and medially rotate and flex thigh
Adductor Magnus A: Adduct and medially rotate and flex thigh; posterior part is also a synergist of hamstrings in thigh extension
Tensor Fasciae Latae A: Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh; steadies trunk
Biceps Femoris A: Extends thigh; laterally rotates leg; flexes kneeO: Long head - ischial tuberosity; short head - linea aspera and distal femurI: Tendon passes laterally to insert into head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
Semitendinosus A: Extends thigh; flexes knee; medially rotates legO: Ischial tuberosityI: Medial aspect of upper tibial shaft
Semimebranosus A: Extends thigh; flexes knee; medially rotates legO: Ischial tuberosityI: Medial condyle of tibia; lateral condyle of femur
Gluteus Maximus A: Complex, powerful thigh extensor (most effective when thigh is flexed); antagonist of iliopsoas; laterally rotates and abducts thighO: Dorsal ilium, sacrum, and coccyxI: Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract
Gluteus Minimus A: Abducts and medially rotates thigh; steadies pelvis
Gluteus Medius A: Abducts and medially rotates thigh; steadies pelvis during walkingO: Upper lateral surface of iliumI: Greater trochanter of femur
Gastrocnemius A: Plantar flexes foot when knee is extended; crosses knee joint, thus can flex knee (when foot is dorsiflexed)O: By two heads from the medial and lateral condyles of femurI: Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Soleus A: Plantar flexion; is an important muscle for locomotionO: Proximal portion of tiba and fibula; interosseous membraneI: Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Tibialis Anterior A: Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot; supports longitudinal arch of footO: Lateral condyle and upper 2/3 of tibia; interosseous membraneI: By tendon into inferior surface of first cuneiform and metatarsal 1
Fibularis Longus A: Plantar flexes and everts foot; helps keep foot flat on groundO: Head and upper portion of fibulaI: By long tendon under foot to metatarsal 1 and medial cuneiform
Extensor Digitorum Longus A: Prime mover of toe extension; dorsiflexes foot
Hamstrings Hamstrings are composed of the Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus. Have a common origin site.
Quadriceps Quadriceps femoris has four separate heads (Rectus Femoris and Vastus Medialis, Lateralis, and Intermedius). Heads have a common insertion tendon, the quadriceps tendon, inserts into patella and then via the patellar ligament into tibial tuberosity.
Rotator Cuff Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Subscapularis (SITS)
Adductors Large muscle mass consisting of three muscles (magnus, longus, brevis)
Created by: esbnlo on 2009-07-05



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