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endocrine path

pathology of endocrine

prolactin excess results from hypothalamic destruction, causes galactorrhea, failure to ovulate, amenorrhea and decreased libido, can be treated with bromocriptine
neuroblastoma highly malignant catecholamine producing tumor of early childhood
neuroblastoma causes hypertension, often presents as abdominal mass, occasionally converts into a more differentiated form termed, ganglioneuroma
pheochromocytoma derived from chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla, most often benign, uncommon cause of hypertension
pheochromocytoma characterized by increased urinary excretion of catecholamines and metabolites, can cause hyperglycemia, can be part of MENIIa or IIb
waterhouse-friderichsen syndrom catastrophic adrenal insufficiency and vascular collapse due to hemorrhagic necrosis of adrenal cortex, often cuased by DIC, characteristically die to meningococcemia
Addison disease most commonly due to idiopathic adrenal atrophy, can also be caused by TB, metastatic tumor and various infetions, characterized by hypotension, increased pigmentation of skin, decreased Na,CL, glucose, bicarb, and increased serum potassium
adrenal virilism caused by congenital enzyme defects( 21 hydroxylase-salt wasting, 11-hydroxylase-salt retaining) produces virilsim in females and precosious puberty in males
secondary aldosteronism secondary to renal ishemia, renal tumors, and edema; caused by stimulation of renin-angiotensin system; demonstrates increased renin
primary aldosteronism conn syndrom
primary aldosteronism usually reslults from aldosterone producing adrenocortical adenoma; characterized by hypertension, sodium and water retention, and hypokalemia; decreased renin
cushings cuased by; exogenous medication, hyperproduction of ACTH, adrenal cortical adenoma or carcinoma, or ectopic production of ACTH
cushings changes are bilateral hyperplasia( excess ACTH production), adrenal cortical atrophy( exogenous medication),
cushings muscle weakness, osteoporosis, amenorrhea, HTN, hyperglycemia, psych dysfunction
craniopharyngioma benign childhood tumor derived from remnants of rathke's pouch
craniopharyngioma characterized by nests and cords of squamous or columnar cells in a loose stroma, closely resembling th appearance of the embryonic tooth bud; is often cystic
nonsecreting pituitary adenomas most often chromophobic, results in dysfunction because of local pressure; clinically variable- minifests include hypopituitarism, headache, visual disturbances ( bilateral hamianopsia)
deficiency of ADH reults in diabetes insipidus
SIADH most commonly caused by ectopic production of ADH, especially small cell carcinoma of the lung
SIADH results in water retention with dilutional hyponatremia, reduced serum osmolality, and inability to dilute urine
pituitary cachexia simmonds disease
pituitary cachexia generalized panhypopituitarism characterized by marked wasting resulting from any process that destroys the ptiuitary frequently: tumors, postpartum pituitary necrosis( sheehan syndrome)
corticotropic adenoma results in increased production of adrenal cortical hormones; cushings disease due to basophilic adenoma; cushing syndrome- hypersecortism regardless of cause( may be due to ectopic ACTH production by tumors)
somatotropic adenoma second most common pituitary tumor, usually acidophilic, causes secondary hyperproduction of somatomedins
prolactinoma most common pituitary tumor, usually chromophobic
Created by: swohlers