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pituitary phys

physiology of pituitary

homrones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary TSH, LH, FSH/ ACTH,MSH/ growth hormone/ prolactin
TSH,LH.FSH belong to the same glycoprotein family, alpha subunits it identical while the beta subunit is responsible for activity of the hormone
ACTH,MSH, beta-lipotropin, beta- endorphin are derived from single prcurser, proopiomelanocortin.
growth hormone ( somatortopin) most important hormone for normal growth to adult size, is homologous to prolactin
growth hormone released in a pulsitile fassion; secretion is increased by sleep,stress,hormones related to puberty, starvation, excercise and hypoglycemia; secretion decreased by somatostatin, somatomedins, obesity, hyperglycemia, and prganancy
GHRH stimulates snthesis and secretion of growth hormone, somatostatin blocks it's effects, somatomedins produced by target hormones inhibits secretion by negative feedback
Growth hormone in the liver, generates somatomedins( IGF) [ IGF receptor uses tyrosine kinase
growth hormone decreases glucose uptake into cells, increases lipolysis, protein synthesis in muscle, increasing lean body mass, and increases the production of IGF
actions of growth hormone via IGF increases synthesis in chondrocytes and increases linear growth, increases protein synthesis in muscle and lean body mass, increases protien synthesis in most organs and organ size
growth hormones dificiency can be caused by lack of anterior pituitary growth hormone, hypothalamic dysfunction, failure to generate IGF in liver, growth hormone receptor deficiency
growth hormone excess causes acromegaly, can be treated with somatostatin analogs
prolactin responsible for lactogenesis, structurally homologous to GH
prolactin tonically inhibited by dopamine, thyrotropin releasing hormone increases it's secretion, inhibits it's own secretion by negative feedback
prolactin stimulates mild production, stimulates breast development along with estrogen, inhibits ovulation and spermogenisis
hormones of the posterior pituitary ADH and oxytocin, synthesized in hypothalamic nuclei and packaged with neurophysins, travels down nerve to post. pituitary
ADH originates primarily in supraoptic nuclei
ADH regulates serum osmolarity by increasing water permeability in late distal tubules and collecting ducts
constricts vascular smooth muscle ADH
ADH is increased by: increased serum osmolarity, volume contraction, pain, nausea, hypoglycemia, nicotine, opiates
ADH is decreased by: decreased serum osmolarity, ethanol, and alpha agonists
oxytocin originates in paraventricular nuclei
oxytocin causes ejection of milk from breasts as a result from the major stimulus of suckling
oxytocin dilates the cervix and is part of orgasm
oxytocin can be used to induce labor and reduce postpartum bleeding
Created by: swohlers