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Kidney 3 - tubule

Kidney - tubule - Guyton

The rate at which each substance is filtered is calculated as? Filtration=Glomerular filtration rate x plasma concentration
Small change in glomerular filtration and reaborbtion leads to? large change-> large amount of urinary excretion
Large fluctation is avoided by? Cordination of glomular filt and reabsorption.
Tubular reabsorption happens over? Epithelial membran (in and out of tubule cell)->interstitial fluid->blood vessel.
Decribe how Na get absorbed at PT. 1)Na diffuses over apical membrane becuase of electochemical gradient which is established by Na/K ATPase at basolateral membrane. 2)The are pumped out by NA/K ATPase into interstitial fluid 3)by ultrafiltration into pericapillaries
Describe primary active absorption and secondary absorption. Primary needs ATP, secondary doesn't need ATP molecules are transported because of low gradient inside the cell. Transporters may be coupled here!
The process which molecule diffuse over membrane is? Transcellular route.
The diffusion between cells are called? Name some molecules that take this route. Paracellular route. NaCl, K, Ca, Mg
How does H2O enter blood? Paracellular->blood<-osmosis (transcellular route)
What is solvent drag? When water takes the paracellular route it drags molucule with it. Low in henle but adjustable in distal tube
What other mechanism brings large particle into the tubule cell? Pinocytosis->cell- cell breaks the molucule down.->blood
Descibe the transport maximum. TM is reffered to that there is a rate limit to which solute can be transported. (begränsning av hur mycket som kan transporteras.)
When TM is reached what happens to molucle. They don't get transported (reabsorbed)-> gets into urine.
Which molucules does not exhibit TM? Substances that are passively reabsorbed.
These molucules depend on? 1)Electrochemical gradient 2)permaeability of the membran for that substance 3)time remaining in tubule
Describe the tubular absorption! High degree of brush border with many tranporters, many mitochondria65% of Na and H2O reabsorbed here. Na is coupled with other molucules like glucose, aminoacid, cl - so called cotransporters. We have counter transporters like Na/H.
Proximal site is important for secretion of? Bilesalts, oxalate, urate and catecholamines.
Descibe the loop of henle! Thin descending and ascending has no brush border and litlle mitochondria and minimal metabolic activity. descening is permeable for water and solutes. Ascending part is impermeable for H2O.
Describe the thick ascending part of henle loop. H2O impermeable. High metabolic activity. 25% of NaCL, K are absorbed in henles. Na-2Cl-K co-transporter. Na/H counter tranporter. Para cellular diffusion of Na, K, Mg, Ca becuase of negative interstitial fluid which is a product of Na/K ATpase pump.
Why does H2O get diluted in henle? Becuase of no water absorbtion-> increased dilution
Describe the distal tubule. Consists of early distal tuble, late distal tuble and cortical collecting tubule. They are impermeable to urea.
Describe early distal tuble! Early distal tuble has the same properties as thick ascending part of henle's loop. It's impermeable to urea.
Describe LATE distal tuble and cortical collecting tuble. composed of two distinct cell types 1)principal cell absorbs Na,H2O excretes K 2)interclated cells (key roll in acid-base regu.) absorbs K secretes H. Cells are impermeable to urea. Permeability is controled by ADH. Incr. ADH->incr. premeability to H2O.
Describe medullary collecting duct. Cells cuboidal, no brush border and little mitochondria. Absorbs less than 10% filtered H2O & Na, Final site and importent in determening final result. H2O permeability controlled by ADH. Permeable to urea-> high osmolality. secretes H against high conc.
Created by: Malekian