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BIO202 Chapt. 10 Dig

RIO Salado Marieb Flashcard, Quiz, Term Review

QuestionAnswer
The main chemical activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins. False
Food is contained in the gastrointestinal tract from the time of ingestion until it is completely digested and the waste is prepared for elimination. True
The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons. False
The function of the enzyme salivary amylase is to begin digesting proteins. False
As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrients more readily available to the body. True
Acessory Organs Tongue, Gallbladder, Salivary Glands, Teeth, Liver, Pancreas
Alimentary Canal Esophagus, Stomach, Large Intestine, Small Intestine, Mouth, Pharynx
Dentin anchors the tooth in place. False
Cystic fibrosis may significantly impair the activity of the liver. False
Another term for swallowing is deglutination. True
Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the GI tract into the blood or lymph Absorption
The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow. False
Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube Peristalsis
The first teeth are called deciduous teeth. True
Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs into substances that can be absorbed Digestion
Enzymatic breakdown of any food molecule Hydrolysis
The plicae circularis and the intestinal villi are found in which of the four layers of the alimentary tube wall? Mucosa
Hepatocytes do not: Produce Digestive Enzymes
The solutes contained in the saliva include: Electrolytes, digestive, enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
The structure that produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine are the: Intestinal Crypts
The capillaries that nurish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the Lamina Propia
Which of the following enzymes are specific for proteins? Trypsin
Short-chain tryglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible? Lipase
Chief Cells? are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands.
Pancreatic amylase does not get into the small intestine via the: Cystic Duct
Parietal cells of the stomach produce: HCL, Hydrochloric acid
The tubelike digestive system canal that extends from the mouth to the anus is the ______ canal. Alimentary
Structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall= Mesentary
Fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption= Villi
large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine Peyer's patches
Deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine= Circular Folds
2 regions that break down foodstuffs mechanically= Oral Cavity and stomach
Mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth and initiates swallowing= Tongue
Conduit for both air and food= Pharynx
Three structures continuous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum= Greater Omentum, lesser omentum, and mesentery
The "gullet"; no digestive/absorptive function= Esophagus
Folds of the gastric mucosa= Rugae
Sacculations of the large intestine= Haustra
Projections of the plasma membrane of a mucosal epithelial cell= Microvilli
Valve at the junction of the small and large intestines= ileocecal valve
Primary region of food and water absorption= Small Intestine
Membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth= Frenulum
Absorbs water and forms feces= Large Intestine
Area between the teeth and lips/cheeks= Vestibule
Wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum= Appendix
Initiates protein digestion= Stomach
Structure attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach= Lesser Omentum
Organ distal to the stomach= Small Intestine
Valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum= Pyloric Valve
Posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity= Soft Palate
Location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass= Small Intestine
Valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum= Pyloric Valve
Posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity= Soft Palate
Location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass= Small Intestine
Serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall= Parietal Peritoneum
Principal site for the synthesis of vitamin K by microorganisms= Large Intestine
Region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body= Anus
Bone-supported anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity= Hard Palate
visible portion of the tooth in situ= Clinical Crown
material covering the tooth root= Cementum
hardest substance in the body= Enamel
attaches the tooth to bone and surrounding alveolar structures= peridontal ligament
portion of the tooth embedded in bone= root
forms the major portion of tooth structure; similar to bone= dentin
produces the dentin= odontoblast
site of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics= pulp
entire portion of the tooth covered with enamel= anatomical crown
produce(s) mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine= duodenal glands
produce(s) a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth= salivary glands
produce(s) a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted into the duodenum= pancreas
produce(s) bile that it secretes into the duodenum via the bile duct= liver
produce(s) HCI and pepsinogen= gastric glands
found in the mucosa of the small intestine; produce(s) intestinal juice= intestinal crypts
Which of the salivary glands produces a secretion that is mainly serous? parotid
Where would you expect to find the Kupffer cells of the liver? Lining the Sinusoid Walls or Sinusoids
The pancreas has two major populations of secretory cells-those in the islets and the acinar cells. Which population serves the digestive process? The ________ cells. Acinar
In the human, the number of deciduous teeth is ___(1)___ ; the number of permanent teeth is ___(2)___. In the human, the number of deciduous teeth is 20; the number of permanent teeth is 32.
Identify the subdivisions of the mucosa (if applicable). What are the major functions? The subdivisions are the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosa. The major functions are absorbtion and secretion.
Identify the subdivisions of the submucosa (if applicable). What are the major functions? There are no subdivisions. The major functions are to provide a vascular supply for mucosa and protection.
Identify the subdivisions of the muscularis externa (if applicable). What are the major functions? The subdivisions are the circular layer and the longitudinal layer. The functions are churning, mixing, and propulsion of food along the tract.
Identify the subdivisions of the serosa or adventitia (if applicable). What are the major functions? There are no subdivisions. The functions are protection and anchoring for adventitia and reduction of friction for abdominal organs by serosa.
How is the muscularis externa of the stomach modified and how does this modification relate to the function of the stomach? It has a third (obliquely oriented) muscle layer. Vigorous churning activity occurs here.
What transition in epithelium type exists at the gastroesophageal junction? How do the epithelia of these two organs relate to their specific functions? Changes from stratified squamous (esophagus) to simple columnar (stomach).
Differentiate between the colon and the large intestine. The large intestine includes the colon, but also includes the cecum, vermiform appendix, rectum, and anal canal.
The dental formula for permanent teeth is ([2,1,2,3]/[2,1,2,3]) x 2 = 32. Explain what this means and provide the dental formula for deciduous teeth. There are two incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars in each jaw (upper and lower) from the medial line posteriorly.
What teeth are the "wisdom teeth"? The number 3 (most posterior) molars.
What is the role of the gallbladder? To store and concentrate bile made by the liver.
Name three structures always found in the portal triad regions of the liver? Branch of the bile duct, branch of the hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal vein.
What is the function of Kupffer cells of the liver? Phagocytosis of debris and worn-out blood cells.
Why is the liver so dark red in the living animal? Because it is a blood reservoir.
increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product= catalyst
provides a standard of comparison for test results= control
biologic catalyst: protein in nature= enzyme
substance on which a catalyst works= substrate
Name the end products of digestion for proteins: amino acids
Name the end products of digestion for carbohydrates: simple sugars
Name the end products of digestion for fats: fatty acids and glycerol and monoglycerides
List the three characteristics of enzymes. Specificity (act on a small number of substrates), temperature specific, and pH specific.
The enzymes of the digestive system are classified as hydrolases. What does this mean? Hydrolases break down organic food molecules by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers.
Why is bile not considered an enzyme? Bile only physically separates the fat droplets. It does not break the molecular bonds as do the digestive enzymes.
What role does bile play in fat digestion? Emulsification of fat by bile increases the surface area for lipase activity.
The three-dimensional structure of a functional protein is altered by intense hear or nonphysiological pH even though peptide bonds may not break. Such inactivation is called denaturation, and denatured enzymes are nonfunctional. Explain why. Their three-dimensional structures and active sites are necessary for their activity. If their structures are changed, the active sites change, thus inactivating the enzyme.
Pancreatic and intestinal enzymes operate optimally at a pH that is slightly alkaline, yet the chyme entering the duodenum from the stomach is very acid. How is the proper pH for the functioning of the pancreatic-intestinal enzymes ensured? The pancreas delivers its enzymes to the small intestine in an alkaline-rich fluid.
What conclusions can you draw when an experimental sample gives both a positive starch test and a positive maltose test? Starch digestion is partial (incomplete).
Assume you have been chewing a piece of bread for 5 or 6 minutes. How would you expect its taste to change during this interval? Why? The bread would begin to taste sweet because starch is broken down to glucose by amylase.
What is the mechanism of absorption for fatty acids and glycerol, and does the absorption result in movement of Blood, Lymph, or Both? The mechanism is by diffusion and it results in their movement into some blood capillaries but mostly lymph capillaries.
What is the mechanism of absorption for Amino acids, and does the absorption result in movement of Blood, Lymph, or Both? The mechanism is by active transport and results in their movement into the blood capillaries.
What is the mechanism of absorbtion of water, and does the absorption result in movement of Blood, Lymph, or Both? The mechanism is by osmosis (diffusion) and results in their movement into blood capillaries.
What is the mechanism of absorption for Na+, Cl-, Ca2+ and does the absorption result in movement of Blood, Lymph, or Both? The mechanism is by active transport for sodium and calcium and by diffusion for chloride and all are moved into the blood capillaries.
People on a strict diet to lose weight begin to metabolize stored fats at an accelerated rate. How does this condition affect blood pH? It would become acidic (decreased pH).
Created by: Christopher Dietrich Christopher Dietrich on 2009-06-30



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