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endocrine panc

endocrine pancreas path

vipoma rare, associated with Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia,and Achlorydria (a.k.a. verner-morrisonor, pancreatic cholera)
glucagonoma rare, results in secondary DM and skin lesions called necrolytic migratory eryhtema
Gastrinoma often malignant, sometimes extrapancreatic , associated with Sollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastric hyperscetion of hydrochloric acid, PUD, and hypergastrinemia)
Insulinoma most common islet tumor, bening or malignant, increased insulin and C-peptide, characterized by whipple triad
changes in skin in DM Xanthomas, furuncles and abscesses because of increased propensity to infection, frequent fungal infections(especially Candida)
changes in liver in DM Fatty change
changes in eye in DM cataracts and proliferative retinopathy ( characterized by retinal exudates, edema, hemorrhages and microaneurysms)
changes in cardiovascular in DM atherosclerosis, MI and PVD, capillary basement membrane thickening
changes in kidney in DM increased width of GBM,diffuse glomerulosclerosis and arteriolar lesions, pylonephritis
changes in pancreasin type 1 DM islets small and beta cells decreased in number or absent; insulitis marked by lymphocytic infiltration an early change
changes in pancreas in type 2 DM focal islet fibrosis with hyalinization with amylin
maturity onset diabetes is an autosomal dominant syndrome causing mild hyperglycemia and hypsecreation of insulin with out loss of beta cells; onset earlier than with type 2
type 2 diabetes onset in middle age, due to increased insulin resistance, positive family history, obesity, normal or increased insulin concentration, mild carbohydrate intolerance
type 1 diabetes early onset, due to failure of insulin snthesis, genetic predisposition complicated by autoimmune inflamation
ketoacidosis results from increased catabolism of fat with production of ketone bodies principally beta hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid
Created by: swohlers