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Medical Terminology


Question Answer
absorption passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the blood stream
amino acids building blocks of proteins, produced when proteins are digested
amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]). It literally means hanging (pend/o) on (ap-)
bile digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
bilirubin pigment released by the live in the bile
bowel intestine
canine teeth pointed, dog tooth -like canine teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. also called cupids or eye teeth
cecum first part of the large intestine
colon large intestine consisting of the cecum; the ascending transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum
common bile duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus.
defecation elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum
deglutition swallowing
dentin major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the cementum in the root
digestion breakdown of complex food to simpler forms
duodenum first part of the small intestine. duo=2, den=10; the duodenum measures 12 inched long
elimination act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials
emulsification physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
enamel hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase
esophagus tube connecting the throat to the stomach. eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing
fatty acids substances produced when fats are digested
feces solid wasted; stools
gallbladder small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch, glucose stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrochloric acid substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum third part of the small intestine
incisor one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum second part of the small intestine
lipase pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver a large organ located in the RQU of the abdomen. the liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn out red blood cells weighs 2.5 to 3 pounds
lower esophageal sphincter (LES) ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach also called cardiac sphincter
mastication chewing
molar teeth the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
palate roof of the mouth. the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jaw bone (maxilla) the soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat
pancreas organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes
papillae small elevations on the tongue. a papilla is a nipple like elevation
parotid gland salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis rhythmic contractions of the tubes of the GI track and other tubular structures
pharynx throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
portal vein large vein bring blood to the liver from the intestines
protease enzyme that digests protein
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near he duodenum it is normally closed but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it
pylorus distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
rectum last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands parotid, sublingual, ad submandibular glands
sigmoid colon fourth and last s-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
sphincter a circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. the stomach's parts are the fundus, body, and the antrum
triglycerides large fat molecules composed of thee parts fatty acid and one part glycerol
uvula soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
villi microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
arteriole small artery
Bowman capsule enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus
calyx or calix cup like collecting region of the renal pelvis
catheter tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex outer region, the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney
creatinine waste product of muscle metabolism; nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
electrolyte a chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water
erythropoietin (EPO) a hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow
filtration passive process whereby some substance pass through a filter or other material
glomerulus tiny ball of capillaries in cortex of kidney
hilum depression or hollow in that part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
kidney one of two bean-shaped organs behind he abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region
meatus opening or canal
medulla inner region; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney
micturition urination; the act of voiding
nephron combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. it is the functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself. about 1 million in a kidney
nitrogenous waste substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
potassium (K+) an electrolyte important to body process. the kidney
reabsorption in this process, the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
renal artery blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
renal pelvis central collecting region in the kidney
renal tubule microscopic tube in the kidney in which urine is formed after filtration. In the renal tubule, the composition of urine is altered by the processes of reabsorption and secretion
renal vein blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney toward the heart
renin an enzymatic hormone synthesized, stored, and secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
sodium (Na+) an electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys
trigone triangular area in the urinary bladder in which the urethers enter and urethra exits
urea major nitrogenous waste product excreted in urine
urethra tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
uric acid a nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
urinary bladder hollow muscular sac that holds and stores urine
urination process of expelling urine also called micturition
voiding emptying of urine from the urinary bladder; urination or micturition
Created by: Chariese