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anthro 101

test 2

Side ASide B
What kind of environment did primates first evolve in? primates evolved in tropical and temperate forests
What and when is the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundry? When is the Tertiary Period? The boundry is ... and was in ... and the period was...
What happens in the late Miocene-Pliocene that promotes hominid evollution (i.e. in terms of climate). In the late Miocene-Pliocene (long cooling and drying period) , forest habitats were reduced which in turn pomoted hominid evollutioin. Large bodied semi-terrestrial apes (Hominoids) were adapted to open woodlands rather than dense forest.
How does this climate affect the enviornment or habitat of central and east Africa? The rainforest has been shrinking, due to lack of rain etc... as a result, evolutioin has been prominent.
What is a savannah? The African savannah is a tropical grassland.
What is the single most important trait that distinguishes Australopithecus from other ape-like primates? Bipedalism.
Identify three reasons why we know Australopithicus was bipedal Lumbar curve, Position of foramen magnum, Shape of pelvis, Tracks.
Two hypotheses about why bipedalism evolved The Brachiating ancestor hypothesis, The solar radiation hypothesis.
The Brachiating ancestor hypothesis Brachiation restructures the upper body and preadapts it for either knucklewalking or bipedalism.the “pathway” to bipedalism is shorter than back to quadripedal locomotion if you already a brachiator Analogy with flightless birds, adapted (ex. ostriche)
The solar radiation hypothesis Walking bipedally may have reduced the amount of heat the body absorbs while moving around in the heat of the day.
How are reduced canines and increased molar size connected functionally? Change in diet that require grinding: tough foods, as well as changes in chewing patterns which promote rotating grinding motion with molars.
Where are Australopithecine fossils found? East Africa. But the first Australopithecine fossil was discovered in a limestone sinkhole in South Africa in 1924 bty Raymond Dart, a paleontologist. An approximately 9 year old child, called the Taung child.
What is the distinctive trait that distinguishes genus Homo from the earlier hominids (Australopithecus)? Thick Cranial Bones
Where is Olduvai Gorge? A hominid site located in the Serengeti Plains of Tanzania in east Africa. Site of discovery of Homo habilis in 1964. Concentrations of bones and stone tools 6 to 20 meters in diameter.
What kinds of fossil evidence is found in Olduvai Gorge? Large animals, 20 to 40 individuals. Wild cattle (bovids) Antelope Wild pigs Zebra Rhinos Hippos Giraffe Elephants Small mammals, 16,000 bones Hares Birds Reptiles fish Rodents Tortoise snakes As well as tools etc...
Why is the debate over hunting and scavenging so important or significant to our understanding of how humans came to be the way they are in terms of family structure, mental abilities, male parental inventment? Because hunting is often seen as the factor that made us human. It requires complex cooperation - Origins of sexual division of labor, Human family formation: male provisioning of females and infants. was it a defining feature or did it evolve later?
How did Ryamond Dart interpred the sinkhole sites where Australopithecine remains were first found? Raymond Dart interpreted these as the cave shelters of Austs, who killed and dragged grazing animals back to their lairs
What was CK Brain's answer to Raymond Darts interpretation of the sinkhole sites where Australopithecine remains were first found? A paleontologist named C.K. Brain reinterpreted the sinkhole sites as accumulations made by leopards. The Austs were not hunters but the hunted. They were the prey of leopards, along with savannah grazing animals.
Tool tradition: Oldowan Species: H. Habilis, H. erectus
Tool tradition: Acheulian Species: H. Erectus
Tool tradition: Mousterian Species: Archaic H. sapiens, Neandertails
Tool tradition: Blade industry technology Species: Anatomically Modern Humans
Who is Raymond Dart? A paleontologist who discovered in a limestone sinkhole in South Africa in 1924. An approximately 9 year old child, called the Taung child.
Who is CK Brain? A paleontologist who reinterpreted the sinkhole sites as accumulations made by leopards. "the hunters or the hunted? (1970's)"
Who is Eugene Dubois? Eugene Dubois was a Dutch anatomist Inspired by reading Darwin who searched for the “missing link” between humans and apes. Expected a human-like head on an ape-like body Got an ape-like head on a human-like body. H erectus was discovered in 1892/Java.
Where was Homo erectus first discovered? H erectus was discovered in 1892 in Java, which was not its place of origin.
Why was Homo erectus different from what people expected the missing link to be like? People expected a human-like head on an ape-like body, but in turn found an ape-like head on a human-like body.
What evidence is there that H. erectus women gave birth to infants that required long periods of care? Pelvis bones indicate that the pelvic opening is about the same as in modern humans. This means that babies may have been born before their brains were completely developed, as in modern humans. Protracted child care was present and esential to survival.
What is distinctive about the Acheulean tool industry, compared to the Oldowan tool industry? The Acheulean tool had a more sophisticated, standardized design. It uses soft hammer (bone or antler) percussion, remarkably stable design. The Oldowan tool Handaxes were bifacially worked.
Discuss one prominent hypothesis about why hominids lost their body hair? One argument is that loss of body hair is an adaptation to strenuous activities in hot weather Body hair reduces the cooling effects of sweating and evaporative cooling.
How does loss of body hair relate relate to early hominid foraging patterns? H erectus may have avoided confrontations with predators by hunting and scavenging during the heat of the day.
Archaeological period: Lower Paleolithic (2.5 mya to 200 kya). Hominin Species: H. habilis and H. erectus
Archaeological period: Middle Paleolithic (200-40 kya). Hominin species: Archaic H. sapiens, Neandertals
Archaeological period: Upper Paleolithic (120 kya to 10 kya). Hominin species: Anatomically Modern Human (H. sapiens)
Neandertals (Archaic Homo sapiens, or Homo Sapiens neandertalensis): What sorts of social and cultural activity appears to be new about the Neandertals? The first hominids to practice burial of dead They built fires in prepared hearths, lived in caves and rock shelters and used a technologicaly sophisticated stone.
Where are Neandertals (Archaic Homo sapiens, or Homo Sapiens neandertalensis) found? Neanderthals are a morphologically distinct population of archaic Homo sapiens that lived in Europe and the Middle East.
What is different about the Neandertals (Archaic Homo sapiens, or Homo Sapiens neandertalensis) anatomy? Large brains, averaging about 1520 cc (compared to 1345 cc for AMHs). Large, protruding faces with large noses and nasal cavities, protruding face due to large teeth. Heavily muscled bodies. Smaller molars than H erectus, large, heavily worn incisors.
What was the first hominid to practice intentional burial of their dead? Neanderthals practiced burial of the dead. No evidence of intentional burial in previous hominins, i.e. H erectus.
What kinds of mental capacities are implied by intentional burials? First clear evidence of representational art and personal adornment. More complex and elaborate mental, behavioral, and cultural capacities.
What are the three theories about the disappearance of Archaic Homo Sapiens (including neanerthals) and the appearance of Anatomically Modern Humans? 1) Replacement and extinction 2) Interbreeding/gene flow 3) In-place evolution or Multiregional hypothesis
What is the "Replacement and extinction" theory? AMH evolved separately, out-competed Neanderthals and other Archaic H.s. “Out of Africa” hypothesis
What is the "Interbreeding/gene flow" theory? There was interbreeding between Archaic H.s. and AMHs, but AMHs were much more numerous successful and swamped them genetically. Thus Neanderthal genes still exist in modern populations in very diluted form.
What is the "In-place evolution or Multiregional hypothesis"? Archaic H.s. populations in different parts of the world evolved into AMHs due to cultural innovation. Technology caused “gracilization” of humans by reducing the amount of physical activity necessary to live.
What is the Mitochondrial Eve (Out of Africa)? Where and how long ago is she supposed to have lived? The mtDNA evidence suggests that everyone alive today is descended from a woman who lived 120 to 200,000 years ago in Africa.
What is mtDNA? What is different about it? mtDNA is only passed down through female lines. Ideal for reconstructing the evolutionary history of animal populations. Found in tiny structures in cells called mitochondria. Distinct from Nuclear DNA. mtDNA doesn’t “do anything subject to mutation.
Identify three technological/behavioral/cultural changes that accompany the appearance of Anatomically Modern Humans. answer NO FOUND...
How are AMHs morphologically distinct from Neanderthals (Archaic H. sapiens)? AMHs appear to have more complex and elaborate behavioral and mental capacities than previous forms. AMHs have a more gracile cranial and post-cranial skeleton. The less robust skeleton reflective of cultural adaptations that reduce musclestress on sklton
What are three kinds of evidence we have that AMHs have more complex behavioral, cultural or mental capacities than Archaic H.s and H. erectus? 1) more sophisticated tool technology 2) First clear evidence of representational art and personal adornment.Burials with grave goods are much more elaborate.Evidence for tailored clothing with buttons, etc.3)evidence of sedentism(numerous huts)in vilages
What is the characteristic stone tool industry of the AMHs (Upper Paleolithic)? The Blade industry was a more efficient way of producing cutting edges from stone. Recall that the Levallois technique was somewhat wasteful of raw material. Required the use of higher quality stone, particularly flint and chert.
What are composite tools? The use of hafting—attaching stone or bone points or blades—to wood or bone handles, shafts becomes widespread. Making tools out of more than one material: wood, stone, bone, leather and combinations thereof.Found Archaic H.s. and H erectus is very sparse
What are ranged weapons? Upper Paleolithic people (AMHs) developed the use of ranged weapons. The atlatl and by the end of the period, bow and arrow. Distance killing reduces the risk of being injured or killed by the prey animal.
Why are composite tools and ranged weapons important to hunting in the Upper Paleolithic? These tools may have also reduced the role of fighting within groups over dominance, and promoted cooperative behavior.
What is an atlatl? A spear or dart thrower.
What hominin species produced the first representational art and personal adornment? AMHs in the Upper Paleolithic (30,000-12,000) produced the first known representational art.
When was Australia thought to have been colonized by humans? Which species of hominin? Australia was first colonized at around 40-50,000 years ago by AMHs.
When was North America thought to have been first colonized by humans? Which species of hominin? North America was colonized between 13,000-20,000 years ago by AMHs.
Created by: maatt