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DU PA Peds Nutrition

Duke PA Pediatric Nutrition

What 6 aspects are included in a pediatric nutrition assessment Medical hx, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary, social
Provides information about child’s physical growth. Measurements may be compared to growth charts Anthropometric indicators
Laboratory values can provide information about a child’s macronutrients and micronutrients stores Biochemical indicators
How much juice should a young child have per day No more than 4 ounces
Head circumference is usually measured until what age 3 years
What children have specialty growth charts Those with Turner’s, Williams, Cornelia Delang or Down syndrome
Until what age should you use recumbent measurements for linear growth 36 months
What measurement may be used for linear growth if a child cannot stand Arm span
At what age is linear growth measured while standing 3 years
Infants usually double birth wt between __ months 4-6
By the first year of life birth wt is __ Tripled
Between 1-2 years average growth in stature is __ 4 ¾ inches
Between 1-2 years, average growth in wt is __ 5.5-6.6 lbs
After 9th to 10th year, wt increases at a rate of __ 4 kg/year
Ht increases an average of __ per year until puberty 6-8
When can you introduce solids When the child sits with balance, ready for high chair, transfers food from front of tongue to back, 4-6 months
How many calories do toddlers need 90 calories/kg
__% of children with eating disorders are male 5
The baby should be put to breast within __ post birth 1-2 hours
Precursor to milk Colostrum
Milk transitions in between __ postpartum 2-4 days
In the case of a premature infant and infants with special needs initiate pumping within __ after delivery 6-8 hours
In the case of a premature infant and infants with special needs pump every __ hours around the clock 3
Ratio of weight ot the square of height in meters BMI
CDC growth charts are not useful for assessing weight for height in __ Teens
What are the key nutrients to be concerned with for children on a vegetarian diet Calories, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B12
Eating disorders can start as early as age 9
Childhood obesity is defined as Greater than 90th percentile for wt for ht, or greater than or equal to the 95th percentile BMI for age and sex
What is the recommended calcium intake for 1-3 year olds 500 mg/d
What is the recommended calcium intake for 4-8 year olds 800 mg/d
What is the recommended calcium intake for 9-18 year olds 1300 mg/d
Length increases by ____ and HC by ___ in the first year Length 50-55% and HC 40%
Teen gains about ___% of adult height and ___% of adult weight during adolescence 20% of height, 50% of weight
Peak height velocity 9.5-10.3 cm/year (boys); 8.4-9.0 cm/year (girls)
Wt gain re: breastfed vs formula formula-fed infants gain wt more rapidly than breastfed, esp after 3-4 months old; higher risk for later obesity
Cow's milk forumula Iron fortified, veg oil (fat source); CHO = lactose; casein:whey varies; 20 kcal/oz
____ formula not recommended for premature infants Soy
Soy formula CHO: sucrose/corn syrup (glucose oligomers); methionine; Ca & PO4 increased by 20% (to compensate for soy's interference with their absorption)
Protein hydrolysate formulas: disadvantages Not recommended for colic, sleeplessness or irritability; expensive
Formula indicated for babies with food allergies Amino acid-based; very expensive
Amino acid-based formula composition CHO: corn syrup; fat: LCFA & MCT
Stomach capacity FT infant 20-90 mL; inc to 90-150 ml by 1 month of age
Who is overweight/obese in NC? 61% of adults; 27% of HS students
Number of kids getting adequate calcium <1 in 10 girls & 1 in 4 boys (9-13 yo)
Therapeutic formulas: to treat: digestive and absorptive insufficiency or protein hypersensitivity
After 2 y.o., fat should be ___% of diet 20-30%
Marasmus sx <70% of IBW; emaciation; loss of mx mass/subQ fat; dry skin/hair; atrophy of the filiform papillae of the tongue; monilial stomatitis; bradycardia, hypothermia
Kwashiorkor = hypoalbuminemic, edematous malnutrition; inadequate protein intake
Kwashiorkor sx <60-80% IBW; maintenance of subQ fat & mx mass atrophy; Flag sx (hair color changes: band); hyperpigmented hyperkeratosis; red macular rash (pellagroid) trunk/ext; flaky paint rash
Water-soluble vitamins ADEK, B, C, folate
Fat-soluble vitamins ADEKC, niacin, B6, tryptophan
B vitamin deficiencies & sequelae B1 beriberi (BF kids <4 mos w/EtOH mom); B3 pellagra; B6 seizures; B12 pernicious anemia
Strict vegetarians need: B12 supplement
Vit K prophylaxis at birth is to prevent: HDN
vitamin ADEK deficiencies A xerophthalmia (night blind, xerosis conjunctiva/cornea); D rickets/ craniotabes; E neuropathy; K
7 essential minerals: Ca, PO4, Mg, Na, P, Cl, S
Don't give fluoride before: 6 months
Most abundant major mineral Calcium
Created by: bwyche