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Chapters 6 and 7

Skeletal System and Muscles & Joints

Articular cartilage Thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joints
Articular joint the point at which two bones come together
Bunion abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
Bursa a small sac that contains synovial fluid for lubricating the area around the joint where friction is most likely to occur
Closed manipulation the manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision;also called closed reduction
Crepitation clicking or crackling sounds heard upon joint movement
Ganglionectomy surgical removal of a ganglion
Joint cavity space between two connecting bones
*Kyphosis humpback
Ligaments connective tissue bands that join bone to bone
Malaise feeling of weakness
Needle aspiration insertion of a needle into a cavity for the purpose of withdrawing fluid
Photosensitivity increased reaction of the skin to exposure to sunlight
Sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve,marked by pain and tenderness along the path of the nerve through the thigh and leg
Subluxation incomplete dislocation
Suture an immovable joint
Synovial fluid a thick lubricating fluid located in synovial joints
Synovial membrane lining of a synovial joint cavity
Viscous sticky;gelatinous
Bone depressions Concave, indented areas or openings in bones
Bone markings Specific features of individual bones
Bone processes Projections or outgrowths of bones
Cancellous bone Spongy bone, not as dense as compact bone
Cervical vertebrae Vertebrae or bones of the neck, C1 through C7
Compact bone Hard outer shell of the bone
Condyle Knucklelike projection at the end of the bone
Crest Distinct border or ridge, as in iliac crest
Diaphysis Main shaftlike portion of the bone
Epiphyseal line A layer of cartilage that separates the disphysis from the epiphysis of a bone; also known as the epiphyseal plane
Epiphysis The end of the bone
False ribs Rib pairs 8 through 10, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but not to the sternum in the front because they join the seventh rib in the front
Fissure A groove or depression in a bone; a sulcus
Flat bones Bones that are broad and thin with flat or curved surfaces, such as the sternum
Floating ribs Rib pairs 11 and 12, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front
Fontanelle or fontanel Space between the bones of an infant’s cranium; “soft spot”
Foramen Hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
Fossa Hollow or concave depression in a bone
Haversian canals System of small canals within compact bone that contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
Hematopoiesis The normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow
Intercostal spaces spaces between the ribs
Invertebral disc A flat, circular platelike structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion (or shock absorber) between the vertebrae
Long bones Bones that are longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur
Lumbar vertebrae The vertebrae of the lower back, L1 through L5.
Medullary cavity The center portion of the shaft of a long bone containing the yellow marrow
Ossification The conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to bone; the formation of bone
Osteoblasts Immature bone cells that actively produce bony tissue
Osteoclasts Large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue
Osteocytes Mature bone cells
Periosteum The thick, white, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a long bone
Red bone marrow The soft, semifluid substance located in the small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production
Resorption The process of removing or digesting old bone tissue
Sesamoid bones Irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a joint, as in the kneecap
Short bones Bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat box-shaped, such as the wrist bone
Sinus An opening or hollow space in a bone; a cavity within a bone
Spine A sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest.
Stenosis An abnormal condition characterized by a narrowing or restriction of an opening or passageway in a body structure
Sulcus A grieve or depression in a bone; a fissure
Sutures Immovable joints, such as those of the cranium
Thoracic vertebrae The 12 vertebrae of the chest, T1 through T12
Trabeculae Needlelike bony spicules within cancellous bone that contribute to the spongy appearance. Their distribution along lines of stress adds to the strength of the bone.
Trocehanter Large bony process located below the neck of the femur.
True ribs The first seven pairs of ribs, which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front.
Tubercle a small rounded process of a bone
Tuberosity An elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone
Vertebral Foramen A large opening in the center of each vertebra that serves as a passageway for the spinal cord
Yellow marrow Located in the disphysis of long bones, yellow marrow consists of fatty tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
Acetabul/o acetabulum
-blast, blast/o embryonic stage of development
calc/o, calc/I calcium
calcane/o heel bone
*carp/o wrist
-clast, -clastic to break
clavicul/o collarbone
coccyg/o coccyx
cost/o ribs
crani/o skull, cranium
*femor/o femur
fibul/o fibula
gen/o to produce
*humer/o humerus
*ili/o ilium
*ischi/o ischium
*kyph/o humpback; pertaining to a hump
lamin/o lamina
*lord/o swayback; bent
lumb/o loins, lower back
*malac/o softening
*-malacia softening
*mandibul/o mandible (lower jaw)
*mastoid/o mastoid process
*maxill/o upper jaw
*metacarp/o hand bones
*metatars/o foot bones
myel/o spinal cord or bone marrow
olecran/o elbow
orth/o straight
oste/o bone
*patell/o, patell/a kneecap
pelv/i pelvis
phalang/o fingers, toes
*-physis growth, growing
por/o cavity, opening, passage, or pore
*-porosis porous; lessening in density
*pub/o pubis
rach/i spinal column
*radi/o radiation, also refers to the radius
*scapula/o shoulder blade
*scoli/o crooked, bent
spondyl/o vertebra
sten/o short contracted, or narrow
stern/o sternum
*tars/o ankle bones
tempor/o temples of the head
vertebr/o vertebra
*osteoporosis Osteoporosis literally means porous bones; that is, bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density
*Osteomalacia disease in which bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorous in the blood. This disease results in fractures and noticeable deformities of the weight-bearing bones.
Osteomyelitis Is a local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow, resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood.
Ewing’s sarcoma Is a malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particular adolescent boys
Osteogenic sarcoma Is a malignant tumor arising from bone. Also known as osteosarcoma, it is the most common malignant bone tumor – with common sites being the distal femur, the proximal tibia, and the proximal humerus.
Osteochondroma Is the most common benign bone tumor. The femur and the tibia are most frequently involved.
Paget’s disease A nonmetabolic disease of the bone, characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts. The bone is weak and prone to fractures.After symptoms are present, takes on a mosaic pattern seen with X-Ray or bone scan
Spinal stenosis Is a narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spinal canal. The narrowing causes pressure on the nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramina
Talipes equinovarus clubfoot
*Abnormal curvatures of the spine a) Kyphosis,outward curvature of a portion of the spine or hunchback b) Lordosis,inward curvature of a portion of the spine, commonly known as swayback c) Scoliosis, lateral curvature of a portion of the spine, to the left or right.
*Closed fracture simple fracture,break in bone, no open wound in skin
*Open fracture compound fracture, break in bone with open wound in skin
*Complete fracture break extends through entire thickness of bone
*Incomplete fracture greenstick fracture,does not extend through entire thickness of bone; one side of the bone is broken and one side of the bone is bent(like trying to snap a green stick or branch from a tree)
*Compression fracture caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other;as in the compression of one vertebra against another. Often associated w/osteoporosis
*Impacted fracture direct force causes the bone to break, forcing the broken end of the smaller bone into the broken end of the larger bone.
*Comminuted fracture when the force is so great that it splinters or crushes a segment of the bone.
*Colles’ fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1” of connecting with the wrist bones.
*Hairline fracture stress fracture,minor in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment. Appears in X-ray as a very thin hairline between the 2 segments.
*Pathological fracture when a bone is weakened by a pre-existing disease and breaks in response to a force that would not normally cause a break
*Occult fracture a hidden fracture, cannot be detected by X-ray until some weeks after injury
*Closed reduction of fracture aligning the bone fragments through manual manipulation or traction, without incision.
*Open reduction of fracture realigning under direct observation during surgery
Bone scan intravenous injection of a radioisotope that is absorbed by bone tissue. Scan then detects areas of concentration of isotope and converts image to screen.
Bone marrow aspiration process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle to examine specimen under microscope
*Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) measures bone density by computer measuring amount of radiation absorbed by the bones
C1,C2,C3… cervical vertebra 1,2,3…
*DEXA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
DIP distal interphalangeal(joint)
*Fx fracture
L1,L2,L3… lumbar vertebra 1,2,3, …
MCP metacarpophalangeal(joint)
MTP metatarsophalangeal(joint)
PIP proximal interphalangeal(joint)
S1 sacrum
T1,T2,T3,... thoracic vertebra 1,2,3,etc.
*THA total hip arthroplasty
*THR total hip replacement
*TKA total knee arthroplasty
*TKR total knee replacement
*TMJ temporomandibular joint
Buccinators located in the fleshy part of the cheek
Temporal muscle located above and near the ear
Masseter located at the angle of the jaw, raises the mandible and closes the jaw.
Sternocleidomastoid extends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process.
Trapezius triangular-shaped muscle that extends across the back of the shoulder, covers the back of the neck and inserts on the clavicle and scapula.
Latissimus dorsi originates from the vertebrae of the lower back, crosses the lower half of the thoracic region and passes between humerus and scapula to insert on the anterior surface of the humerus
Pectoralis major major muscle, large,fan-shaped muscle that crosses the upper part of the front of the chest. Forms anteriour border of the axilla(armpit)
*Deltoid covers shoulder joint. Used for intramuscular injections.
*Biceps brachii has 2 heads, both originate from the scapula and insert on the radius
*Triceps brachii muscle has 3 heads, originate from the scapula and the humerus and insert onto the olecranon process of the ulna
*Gluteous maximus forms most of the fleshy part of the buttock. Offers support when an individual is standing
Gluteus medius smaller muscle located above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscle
Quadriceps femoris 4 of the 5 muscles that is the anterior part of the thigh (works together to extend the thigh)
Hamstring muscles responsible for flexing the leg on the thigh and extending the thigh
Gastrocnemius main muscle of the calf. Attaches to the calcaneus(heel bone) by way of the Achilles tendon
Tibialis anterior positioned on the front of the leg. Responsible for turning the foot inward (inversion) and for dorsi-flexing the foot
Arthralgia pain in the joints
Atrophy wasting away; literally “without development”
*Cardiac muscle forms the wall of the heart, type of involuntary muscle
Contract/contraction reduciton in size, especially of muscle fibers
Contracture abnormal bending of a joint into a fixed position
Fascia thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue that penetrate and cover the entire muscle, holding the fibers together
Insertion point of attachment of a muscle to a bone it moves
*Involuntary muscle muscles that act without conscious control; controlled by autonomic nervous system and hormones
Muscle fiber name given to the individual muscle cell
Origin point of attachment of a muscle to a bone that is less movable
Pelvic girdle weakness weakness of the muscles of the pelvic girdle (the muscles that extend the hip and the knee)
*Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy a form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration without evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue; also known as Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
*Skeletal muscle muscles that attach to the bones of the skeleton; also known as striated muscle
*Smooth muscle muscles found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes such as the stomach, intestines, repiratory passageways, and blood vessels; known as visceral muscles
*Striated muscle have a striped appearance when viewed under a microscope(skeletal and cardiac muscles are examples)
Tendon strong fibrous band of tissue that extends from a muscle, attaching it to the bone by becoming continuous with the periosteum of the bone
Torso trunk
*Visceral muscle muscles of the internal organs
*Voluntary muscle muscles that operate under conscious control
*Bi- two,double
Bucc/o cheek
Dors/o back
Dys- bad,difficult, painful disordered
Electr/o electrical, electricity
Fasci/o band of fibrous tissue
Fibr/o fiber
-graphy process of recording
-itis inflammation
*leiomy/o smooth muscle
*my/o muscle
pector/o pertaining to the chest
rhabdomy/o striated muscle;skeletal muscle
*tri- three
troph/o development
*muscular dystrophy a group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive symmetrical wasting of skeletal muscles
polymyositis chronic, progressive disease, muscle weakness of hips and arms and degeneration
rotator cuff tear tear in muscles that forma “cuff” over the upper end of the arm or head of the humerous.
Strains an injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon from overstretching,overextension or misuse
Muscle biopsy extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue through biopsy needle or incisional biopsy for examination under microscope
Electromyography process of recording strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by electric current
*IM intramuscular
*MD muscular dystrophy
*DTR deep tendon reflexes
EMG electromyography
Fibrous joint immovable joint, where surfaces of bones fit loosely together and are held together by fibrous connective tissue
Cartilaginous joint bones are connected by cartilage, allows for limited movement
*Synovial joint bones have a space between them called join cavity which is lined with a synovial membrane. Bones of this joint are held together by ligaments.
Hinge joint allows movement in one direction—back and forth
Ball and socket joint allows movements in many directions around a central point
Flexion is a bending motion
Extension a straightening motion
Abduction movement of a bone away from the midline of the body
Adduction movement of a bone toward the midline of the body
Rotation movement that involves the turning of a bone on its own axis
Supination act of turning the palm up or forward
Pronation act of turning the palm down or backward
Dorsiflexion of the foot narrows the angle between the leg and the top of the foot
Plantar flexion of the foot increases the angle between the leg and the top of the foot
Circumduction is the movement of an extremity around in a circular motion
Ankyl/o stiff
*Arthr/o joint
Articul/o joint
Burs/o bursa
*-centesis surgical puncture
*-desis binding or surgical fusion
-gram record or picture
-graphy process of recording
-itis inflammation
ligament/o ligament
oste/o bone
-plasty surgical repair
-scopy process of viewing with an endoscope
ten/o,tendin/o,tend/o tendon
adhesive capsulitis a shoulder condition characterized by stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement and pain(frozen shoulder)
*arthritis inflammation of joints
*ankylosing spondylitis type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column and causes deformities of the spine
bunion an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
dislocation the displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing loss of function
ganglion a cystic tumor developing on a tendon
*gout a form of acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe
*herniated disk the rupture of the cen tral portion, or nucleus, of the disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal
Lyme disease an acute recurrent inflammatory infection transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick
*Osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease, common form of arthritis and is from wear and tear on the joints
*Rheumatoid arthritis chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease affecting multiple joints of body, mainly small peripheral joints (hands and feet)
Sprains an injury involving the ligaments that surround and support a joint (caused by wrenching or twisting motion)
*Systemic lupus erythematosus chronic inflammatory connectivetissue disease affecting the skin,joints,nervous system,kidneys,lungs,and other organs. Most obvious symptom is “butterfly rash”
Arthrocentesis surgical puncture of a joint with a needle for withdrawing fluid for analysis
Arthrogram an X-ray of a joint after injection of a contrast medium
Arthrography process of X-raying the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint
Arthroplasty surgical reconstruction of a joint
Arthroscopy the visualization of the interior of a joint using an endoscope
Rheumatoid factor blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis
Erythrocyte sed rate a blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood
DIP distal interphalangeal (joint)
*ESR (sed rate) erythrocyte sedimentation rate
HNP herniated nucleus pulposus
LLE left lower extremity
MCP metacarpophalangeal (joint)
*OA osteoarthritis
PIP proximal interphalangeal (joint)
*RA rheumatoid arthritis
*RF rheumatoid factor
RLE right lower extremity
RUE right upper extremity
*SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
*humerus upper arm bone, joins the radius and ulna below
*radius one of 2 lower arm bones, joins humerus above and wrist bones below
*ulna 2nd of 2 lower arm bones jons humerus above and wrist bones below. on little finger side of arm
*carpals bones of wrist
*metacarpals join the carpals with the fingers(phalanges)
*phalanges bones of fingers
*ischium lowest part of the hip bones, bony part that rests on chair
*femur thigh bone,longest, heaviest, strongest bone in body
*patella knee bone, or kneecap
*tibia the shin bone
*fibula along side the tibia, more slender then the tibia
*tarsals bones of the ankle
*metatarsals bones of the foot
*Illiac crest upper curved edge of the ilium
*ilium largest of the 3 hip bones
*pelvis formed by the hip bones; ilium,ischium,pubis
*pubis anterior, front part of the hip bones
*symphysis pubis point of connection of the 2 pubic bones
*calcaneus bone largest of the tarsal bones(ankle), the heel bone
*talus bone joins the tibia and fibula, to form the ankle joint
functions of skeletal system 1)Serves as supporting framework of body2)Protects vital internal organs3)Important role in movement = provides points of attachment for muscles4)Reservoir for storing minerals5)Red bone marrow is responsible for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
Created by: kcannon