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History Ch. 8 9 & 10

6th Ancient History Final Exam Chapters eight nine and ten

polis the Greek word for a city- state
classical an age that is marked by great achievements
acropolis a high hill
agora public meeting place
democracy a type of government in which people rule themselves
aristocrats rich landowners
oligarchy a government in which a few rich people have power
citizens people who had the right to participate
tyrant a leader who held power through the use of force
Pisistratus Greek tyrant
Cleisthenes overthrew the aristocracy forever. He created the worlds first democratic government
mythology a body of stories about gods and heroes that try to explain how the world works
Homer Poet. Wrote the Odyssey and the Illiad
Sappho Female Lyric poet
Aesop Wrote Fables that teach people important lessons
Fables short stories that teach the reader lessons about life or give advice on how to live
cavalry a unit of soldiers who ride horses
Persian wars a series of wars between Persia and Greece that was started when Darius I sailed to the plains of marathon near Athens
Xerxes I Darius's son. Tried to reconquer Greece. Won the battle of Thermopylae
alliance and agreement to work together
Peloponnesian War a war between Sparta and Athens
Phillip II king of Macedonia defeated Athens and obtained the rest of Greece as their leader
phalanx a group of warriors who stood close together in a square
Alexander the Great Phillip II's son. Created the Persian Empire. Took over from Macedonia to Egypt and India. When his soldiers got to the Indus river they stopped conquering. He died days after visiting Babylonia
Hellenistic Greek-like
Hellenistic Macedonia taken over by the Romans in the mid-100's BC
Hellenistic Syria Taken over by the Romans in the 60s BC
Hellenistic Egypt Taken over by the Romans in 30 BC
Socrates teacher. taught by asking questions and questioning other beliefs. Sentenced to death
Plato Teacher and Philosopher. Created the Academy. Thought that the government should be run by Philosophers. Wrote the Republic
Aristotle Plato's student. Believed people should have balance in their lives.
reason clear and ordered thinking
Euclid Mathematician
Hippocrates Doctor. Created the Hippocratic Oath
Republic people elect leaders to govern them
dictators rulers with almost absolute power
Plebians common people
Patricians Nobles
magistrates the first part of the Roman Government
Consuls The two most powerful magistrates in Rome. Could only hold office for 2 years
Roman Senate a council of wealthy and powerful Romans the advised the city's leaders
veto to prohibit
latin the Roman Language
Checks and balances methods to balance power and keep any one part of a government from becoming stronger or more influential than the others
Forum Rome's public meeting place
legions a group of 6,000 soldiers
Punic wars a series of wars against Carthage, a city in Northern Africa
Created by: lalaland462