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Virology Review 1

Cytoplasmic DNA viruses (Poxviruses)

Small Pox:2 Main Types Variola Major & Variola Minor
4 Types of Variola Major 1. Ordinary - 2. Vaccine Modified - 3. Flat/Malignant - 4. Hemorrhagic
Structural Characteristics of POXVIRUS virions are enveloped and rectangular
Cytoplasmic DNA viruses-size of genome LARGE genome
Do cytoplamic DNA viruses encode their own DNA & RNA polymerases? They code for their own cytoplasmic DNA & RNA polymerases
Do cytoplamic DNA viruses encode their own accesory proteins needed for DNA & RNA synthesis? They encode their own accesory proteins needed for DNA & RNA synthesis
PRODROMAL PHASE of Small *Pox length? - *contagious? - *clinical symptoms? Lasts 2-4 days; May be contagious; rash develops on 3-4th day in mouth & on tongue
Smallpox rash develops within 24 hoursstarts on face, moves to arms and leg, and then to hands and feet
Typical day of Death for Smallpox Death usually occurs beween 10th-16th day
Period that Smallpox is communicable Is communicable from onset of rash until complete separation of all scabs
Monkeypox mortality rate 1-14% mortality rate
Monkeypox vaccine? Smallpox vaccine protects from contracting it
MCV stands for Abbreviation of Molluscum Contagiosum
MCV Incuation period 2-8 week incubation period
Complication of MCV Complication of this disease is 2ndary bacterial infection
MCV vaccine? Smallpox vaccine does not protect/prevent
MCV and AIDS This type of poxvirus is an opportunistic AIDs infection
Vaccinia Virus is genetically similar to what? genetically similar to buffalopox
Role of Vaccinia virus in vaccines? This virus is used for the smallpox vaccine. Led to eradication of smallpox!
Complication of Vaccinia virus in IMComp people or pple with skin condition May cause severe and systemic disease in IMComp people or those with pre-existing eczema or atopic dermatitis
Defintion of an Exanthematous disease Definition: a disease that is accompanied by skin eruptions(e.g. smallpox)
Genomic Characteristics of POXVIRUS - large genome- linear dsDNA
2 Different Morphologies of Poxvirus virions Types of Virion Morphologies:Intact M form - found in vesicualr fluid. C Form - associated with dried scabs
Sequence on the ends of Smallpox genome Inverted Terminal Repeat (ITR) sequences are found on the ends of its genome
Internal Structure of Poxviruses Internally they have: -a nucleoid core. -2 lateral bodies surrounded by an outer membrane
The lateral body contents of a Smallpox virion This internal structure contains various enzymes essential for viral replication
With the exception of _______ and ___ , all poxvirus infections of humans today are zoonoses. All poxvirus infections of humans today, with the exception of variola and MCV, are ________.
Average Size of Poxvirus genome (in nm) Size of genome is 350-270 nm
Avergae Size of genome ends of Poxvirus (in kb) Size of genom ends are 130-230 kb
Size of Vaccinua Virus genome (in bp) Size of genome is 200 bp
Cellular location of Vaccinia virus replication Virus replication occurs solely in the cytoplasm even though it has a DNA genome
Extracellular Enveloped Virion (EEV) 1 Form of infectous particle of Poxvirus. - occurs as 2 membranes. - membrane obtained from the Golgi apparatus & plasma membrane on the host cell
Intracellular Mature Virion (IMV) 1 Form of infectous particle of Poxvirus. - occurs as only the inner mebrane. - membrane derived by a Gogli wrapping event
Loss of EEV membrane Outer Membrane is removed during uncoating. Inner membrane lost when particle enters the cell (allowing viral core to pass into cytoplasm)
Method for Vaccinia Virus Entry May be fusion, endocytosis, or both
Uncoating of Vaccinia Virus Event of this virus when the outer membrane of EEV is removed, and particle enters cell, then it loses the 2nd membrane, then viral core passes into cytoplasm
Proteins involved with interation between Vaccinia and Cell Surface A27L virion protein of this virus interacts with GAG on the cell surface
3 Classes of Vaccinia Virus mRNAs Early, Intermediate, & Late
Self-supplied Transcriptional Machiney for synthesizing Vaccinia viral mRNAs DNA dependent RNA polymerase; Transcription Factor (VETF); Capping enzymes; Methylating enzymes; Poly(A) polymerase; D10 decapping enzyme involved in mRNA turnover
Vaccinia virus particles contain _____________ machinery capacble of synthesizing viral mRNAs that ARE recognized by the cell's _____________ machinery __________ virus particles contain transcriptional machinery capable of synthesizing viral mRNAs that ____ recognized by the cell's translational machinery
Poxvirus gene expression and genome ____________ can occur in enucleated cells, but _____________ of particles is blocked. Poxvirus gene ____________ and genome replication can occur in ____________ cells, but maturation of particles is blocked.
NO splicing occurs in __________ mRNAs NO __________ occurs in poxvirus mRNAs
With Vaccinia, Infectious particles are assembled after __________ With Vaccinia, ____________ are assembled after the late gene products are synthesized.
Cycle of EEV membrane gain and loss This form of poxvirus has 2 membranes. A new particle gets its 1st membrane from the Golgi of the cell, its 2nd from the plasma membrane when exiting. It loses its 1st membrane when uncoating outside of another cell, it loses its 2nd while entering it.
Early expressed mRNAs of Vaccinia These mRNAs of this virus encode enxymes & factors needed for transcription of the intermediate class of these.
Intermediate expressed mRNAs of Vaccinia These mRNAs of this virus encode enxymes & factors required for late gene expression.
Stage in which DNA replication of Vaccinia occurs. With Vaccinia, This ocurs between early and late transcription
Stage in which Late mRNA expression of Vaccinia occurs With vaccinia, this occurs after DNA replication.
Vaccinia Late mRNAs encode for these. These mRNAs of vaccinia virus encode for factors & enzymes packaged into the virion; AND structural proteins.
Vaccinia virus D10 gene The gene that encodes a decapping enzyme that may accelerate viral mRNA turnover & help eliminate competing host mRNAs from being translated by the translational machinery. !!!!!!This allows for stage-specific synthesis of viral proteins!!!!!!
Assembly of Vaccinia involves interaction with what? This involves interaction with the cytoskeleton of host cell, using actin-binding proteins
newly synthesized EEVs that have exited the host cell can do what? This of the vaccinia virus can initiate infection & mediate cell-to-cell spread
Release of Vaccinia occurs in these 2 ways. If this occurs through cytoplasmic membrane disruption, IMV is seen. If this occurs through budding, EEV is seen.
Poxvirus & Immune Evasion - These are produced by poxviruses. This virus produces VIROCEPTORS & VIROKINES that contribute to Immune Evasion.
Definition: Viroceptors Altered cellular receptors that have lost their transmembrane anchor sequences. They are released from infected cells & bind to virus seeking ligands, lowering innate immune system offense effectiveness.
Defintion: Virokines Resemble host cytokines. Are secreted like cytokines
This resistance allele of smallpox protects individuals from HIV-1 infection CCR5-Δ32
Reasons why smallpox (variola) was a good candidate for eradication has a narrow host range, there are no carriers, there are no animal reservoirs, a very effective & inexpensive free-dried vaccine was available, surveillance of disease was easy (rash is cardinal sign)
Why vaccinia is a good virus for vaccination good vector because it has a large dsDNA genome so it can package additional foreign genes. Foreign genes can recombine into it's genome via homologous recombination into nonessential genes.
Cidofovir Used to treat AIDS patients with MCV infections
Created by: lbr9349