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Crystals 2nd stack

Language of Medicine...Chapter 2...7th ed.

anabolism Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
catabolism Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
cell membrane Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
chromosomes Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes.
cytoplasm All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
DNA Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.
ribosomes Found on the endoplasmic reticulum.
genes Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
karyotype Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
metabolism The total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
mitochondria Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy (where catabolism occurs).
nucleus Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.
adipose tissue Collection of fat cells.
cartilage Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints.
epithelial cell Skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs.
histologist Specialist in the study of tissues.
larynx Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea.
pharynx Throat. The pharynx is the common passageway for food and air.
pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
thyroid gland Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
trachea Windpipe.
ureter One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder. Spelling clue: ureter has two e's and there are two of them.
urethra Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Spelling clue: urethra has one e and there is only one urethra.
uterus The womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it develops.
viscera Internal organs.
abdominal cavity Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines.
abdomen Another name for abdominal cavity.
cranial cavity Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
cranial Pertaining to the skull.
diaphragm Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
dorsal (posterior) Pertaining to the back.
mediastinum Centrally located space between the lungs.
pelvic cavity Space below the abdomen, containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.
pelvic Pertaining to the hip bone.
peritoneum Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.
pleura A double-layered membrane surrounding each lung.
pleural cavity Space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung.
spinal cavity Space within the spinal column and containing the spinal cord.
spinal canal Another name for the spinal cavity.
thoracic cavity Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.
ventral (anterior) Pertaining to the front.
hypochondriac regions Upper right and left regions beneath the ribs.
epigastric region Upper middle region above the stomach.
lumbar regions Middle right and left regions near the waist.
umbilical region Central region near the navel.
inguinal regions Lower right and left regions near the groin.
iliac regions Another name for inguinal regions.
hypogastric region Lower middle region below the umbilical region.
RUQ Right upper quadrant.
LUQ Left upper quadrant.
RLQ Right lower quadrant.
LLQ Left lower quadrant.
cervical division Neck region (C1-C7)
thoracic division Chest region (T1-T12)
lumbar division Loin (waist) region (L1-L5)
sacral division Region of the sacrum (S1-S5)
coccygeal division Region of the coccyx (tailbone).
vertebra A single backbone.
vertebrae Backbones.
spinal column Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.
spinal cord Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.
disk (disc) A pad of cartilage between vertebrae.
anterior (ventral) Front side of the body.
deep Away from the surface.
distal Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.
frontal (coronal) plane Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions.
inferior (caudal) Below another structure.
medial Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.
posterior (dorsal) Back side of the body.
prone Lying on the belly (face down, palm down).
proximal Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure.
sagittal (lateral) plane Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides.
midsagittal plane Divides the body or structure into right and left halves.
superficial On the surface.
superior (cephalic) Above another structure.
supine Lying on the back (face up, palm up).
transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane Horizontal plane dividing the body or into upper and lower portions.
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast (throw)
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartilage (a type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side and back between the ribs and the pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/o hip, pelvic cavity
poster/o back, behind
proxim/o nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o belly side of the body
vertebr/o vertebrae, backbones
viscer/o internal organs
ana- up
cata- down
epi- above
hypo- below
inter- between
meta- change
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process
-ose pertaining to, full of
-plasm formation
-somes bodies
-type picture, classification
abdominal Pertaining to the abdomen.
adipose Pertaining to fat.
anterior Pertaining to the front.
anabolism Process of casting up (building-up or synthesizing process in a cell).
cervical Pertaining to the neck.
chondroma Tumor of cartilage.
chondrosarcoma Flesh tumor (malignant) of cartilage.
chromosomes "Color bodies"; contain genetic material and are located in the nucleus of a cell.
coccygeal Pertaining to the coccyx (tailbone).
craniotomy Incision of the skull.
cytoplasm Contents (formation) of the cell (apart from the nucleus and cell membrane).
distal Pertaining to far (from the beginning of a structure).
dorsal Pertaining to the back.
histology Study of tissues.
iliac Pertaining to the ilium.
inguinal Pertaining to the groin.
karyotype Picture (classification) of the nucleus (and it's chromosomes).
lateral Pertaining to the side.
lumbosacral Pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions.
medial Pertaining to the middle.
nucleic Pertaining to the nucleus.
posterior Pertaining to the back, behind.
proximal Pertaining to near the beginning of a structure.
sacral Pertaining to the sacrum.
sarcoma Tumor of the flesh tissue (malignant).
spinal Pertaining to the spine, backbone.
epithelial cell Cell covering the surface of the skin and inner lining of body cavities and tubes.
thoracic Pertaining to the chest.
thoracotomy Incision of the chest.
tracheal Pertaining to the windpipe (trachea).
umbilical Pertaining to the navel.
ventral Pertaining to the belly side of the body.
vertebral Pertaining to the vertebrae.
visceral Pertaining to internal organs.
anabolic Pertaining to casting up; building up substances (proteins) in the cell.
catabolism Process of casting down; breaking down material (food) in the cell to release energy.
epigastric Pertaining to above the stomach.
hypochondriac regions Pertaining to under the rib cartilages (area of the abdomen).
intervertebral Pertaining to between the vertebrae.
Created by: jonescd